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MAROKO

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Vijesti iz Maroka u svijetu

Vijesti iz Maroka u svijetu (MWN) su e-novine na engleskom jeziku sa sjedištem u Rabatu i Washingtonu, DC koje objavljuju vijesti o Maroku i regiji Bliski istok i istok sjeverne Afrike o širokom rasponu tema poput kulture, politike, ekonomije, međunarodnih odnosa, tehnologije, sporta i Zapadne Sahare.

Vijesti iz Maroka u svijetu
TipMrežne novine
Formate-novine
Osnivač (i)Samir Bennis
Adnane Bennis
IzdavačMWN
Glavni urednikSamir Bennis
UrednikPerri Huggins
Zamjenik urednikaSafaa Kasraoui
Pomoćni urednikMorgan Hekking
Upravljački urednikAdnane Bennis
Urednik vijestiPerri Huggins
Urednik kampusaSafaa Kasraoui
Urednik mišljenjaPerri Huggins
OsnovanSvibnja 2011
JezikEngleski
ZapovjedništvoWashington DC,
Rabat
Web stranica www .moroccoworldnews .com

MWN [1] osnovali su u svibnju 2011. Samir [2] i Adnane Bennis, [3] dva marokanska braća koja su tada živjela u New Yorku. 2017. godine preselila je svoje sjedište u SAD -u iz New Yorka u Washington, DC. Do 2019. godine MWN je brojao novinare i urednike u Washingtonu, New Yorku, Rabatu, Essaouiri, Fesu i Nizozemskoj.

Samir Bennis bio je glavni urednik, politički analitičar i autor od svog početka. Adnane Bennis bila je glavna urednica.


Sadržaj

Puni arapski naziv zemlje (Al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiya) prevodi na Zapadno Kraljevstvo. Al Maghrib (značenje Zapad) se obično koristi. Za povijesne reference, povjesničari su Maroko nazivali kao Al Maghrib al Aq ş & aacute (Najdalji zapad), odvajajući ga od povijesne regije koja se zove Magreb. Ime Maroko na mnogim drugim jezicima potječe od imena bivšeg glavnog grada, Marakeša.


Sadržaj

Arheološka istraživanja pokazala su prisutnost ljudi u Maroku koji su bili njihovi preci Homo sapiens, kao i prisutnost ranih ljudskih vrsta. Fosilizirane kosti 400.000 godina starog ljudskog pretka otkrivene su u Saléu 1971. [2] Kosti nekoliko vrlo ranih Homo sapiens iskopani su u Jebel Irhoudu 1991., datirani su modernim tehnikama 2017. i utvrđeno je da su stari najmanje 300.000 godina, što ih čini najstarijim primjercima Homo Sapiensa otkrivenim bilo gdje u svijetu. [11] 2007. u Taforaltu su otkrivene male perforirane perle od školjki stare 82.000 godina, što ih čini najranijim dokazom osobnog ukrasa pronađenog bilo gdje u svijetu. [12]

U doba mezolitika, između 20.000 i 5000 godina, zemljopis Maroka više je nalikovao savani nego sadašnjem sušnom krajoliku. [13] Iako se u to doba malo znalo o naseljima u Maroku, iskopavanja drugdje u regiji Magreba sugerirala su obilje divljači i šuma koje bi bile gostoljubive za mezolitske lovce i sakupljače, poput onih iz kapsijske kulture. [14]

Tijekom neolitika, koji je slijedio mezolitik, savanu su okupirali lovci i stočari. Kultura ovih neolitskih lovaca i stočara cvjetala je sve dok regija nije počela isušivati ​​nakon 5000. godine prije Krista zbog klimatskih promjena. Obalna područja današnjeg Maroka u ranom neolitiku dijelila su kulturu keramike Cardium koja je bila zajednička cijeloj mediteranskoj regiji. Arheološka istraživanja sugeriraju da su se u tom razdoblju u regiji dogodili pripitomljavanje stoke i uzgoj usjeva. [ potreban je citat ] U razdoblju halkolitika ili bakrenog doba kultura čaša dosegla je sjevernu obalu Maroka. [ potreban je citat ]

Kartaga (oko 800. - oko 300. pr. Kr.) Uredi

Dolazak Feničana na marokansku obalu najavio je mnogo stoljeća vladavine stranih sila na sjeveru Maroka. [15] Fenički trgovci prodrli su u zapadno Sredozemlje prije 8. stoljeća prije nove ere, a ubrzo nakon toga [ kada? ] postavili skladišta soli i rude uz obalu i uz rijeke na području današnjeg Maroka. [3] Glavna rana naselja Feničana uključivala su naselja u Chellahu, Lixusu i Mogadoru. [16] Poznato je da je Mogador početkom 6. stoljeća prije Krista bio fenička kolonija. [17]

Do 5. stoljeća prije Krista, država Kartaga proširila je svoju hegemoniju na veći dio sjeverne Afrike. Kartaga je razvila trgovačke odnose s berberskim plemenima u unutrašnjosti i plaćala im godišnji danak kako bi osigurala njihovu suradnju u eksploataciji sirovina [18]

Mauretanija (oko 300. pr. Kr. - oko 430. poslije Krista) Uredi

Mauretania je bila neovisno plemensko berbersko kraljevstvo na mediteranskoj obali sjeverne Afrike, koje odgovara sjevernom današnjem Maroku iz otprilike 3. stoljeća prije Krista. [19] Najraniji poznati kralj Mauretanije bio je Bocchus I, koji je vladao od 110. pne do 81. pr. dvojbeno - raspravljati ]. Neki od njegovih najranijih zapisa vezani su za fenička i kartažinska naselja poput Lixusa i Chellaha. [19] Berberski kraljevi vladali su unutarnjim teritorijima zasjenjujući obalne predstraže Kartagine i Rima, često kao sateliti, dopuštajući postojanje rimske vladavine. [ potreban je citat ] Postao je klijent Rimskog carstva 33. godine prije Krista, tada pune provincije nakon što je car Kaligula dao pogubiti posljednjeg kralja Ptolomeja Mauretanijskog (39. ili 40. godine). [20]

Rim je kontrolirao golemi, loše definirani teritorij savezima s plemenima, a ne vojnom okupacijom, proširujući svoju vlast samo na ona područja koja su bila ekonomski korisna ili koja su se mogla braniti bez dodatne radne snage. Stoga se rimska uprava nikada nije prostirala izvan ograničenog područja sjeverne obalne ravnice i dolina. Ova strateška regija činila je dio Rimskog Carstva, kojim se upravljalo kao Mauretania Tingitana, s gradom Volubilisom kao glavnim gradom. [ potreban je citat ]

Za vrijeme rimskog cara Augusta Mauretanija je bila vazalna država, a njezini vladari, poput Jube II, kontrolirali su sva područja južno od Volubilisa. No učinkovita kontrola rimskih legionara dosegla je čak do područja Sala Colonia (castra "Exploratio Ad Mercurios" južno od Sale najjužnija je do sada otkrivena). Neki povjesničari vjeruju da je rimska granica dosegla današnju Casablancu, tada poznatu kao Anfa, koju su Rimljani naselili kao luku. [ potreban je citat ]

Za vrijeme vladavine Jube II. August je osnovao tri kolonije s rimskim građanima u Mauretaniji blizu atlantske obale: Iulia Constantia Zilil, Iulia Valentia Banasa i Iulia Campestris Babba. August će na kraju pronaći dvanaest kolonija u regiji. [21] U tom je razdoblju područje pod kontrolom Rima doživjelo značajan gospodarski razvoj, potpomognuto izgradnjom rimskih cesta. To područje u početku nije bilo u potpunosti pod kontrolom Rima, a tek sredinom 2. stoljeća izgrađen je limes južno od Sale koji se protezao do Volubilisa. [ potreban je citat ] Oko 278. godine poslije Krista Rimljani su preselili svoj glavni grad u Tanger i Volubilis je počeo gubiti važnost.

Kršćanstvo je uvedeno u regiju u 2. stoljeću poslije Krista, a preobraćene je u gradovima i među robovima, kao i među berberskim poljoprivrednicima. Do kraja 4. stoljeća romanizirana područja su kristijanizirana, [ potrebno pojašnjenje ] i došlo je do prodora među berberskim plemenima, koja su se ponekad masovno obraćala. Također su se razvili šizmatički i heretički pokreti, obično kao oblici političkog protesta. Područje je imalo i značajno židovsko stanovništvo. [ potreban je citat ]

Muslimansko osvajanje (oko 700.) Urediti

Muslimansko osvajanje Magreba, koje je započelo sredinom 7. stoljeća poslije Krista, postignuto je početkom 8. stoljeća. To područje je donijelo i arapski jezik i islam. Iako je bio dio većeg islamskog carstva, Maroko je u početku bio organiziran kao podružnica Ifriqiya, s lokalnim guvernerima koje je imenovao muslimanski guverner u Kairouanu. [23]

Autohtona berberska plemena prihvatila su islam, ali su zadržala svoje običajne zakone. Također su platili porez i danak novoj muslimanskoj upravi. [24]

Berberska pobuna (740–743) Uredi

Godine 740. poslije Krista, potaknuti puritanskim haridžitskim agitatorima, berbersko se stanovništvo pobunilo protiv vladajućeg Umajadskog kalifata. Pobuna je započela među berberskim plemenima u zapadnom Maroku, a brzo se proširila po cijeloj regiji. Iako je ustanak nestao 742. godine prije Krista prije nego što je stigao do vrata Kairouana, ni umajadski vladari u Damasku ni njihovi nasljednici Abasidi nisu uspjeli ponovno nametnuti svoju vlast na područjima zapadno od Ifriqije. Maroko je nestao pod kontrolom Umajada i Abasida te se rascjepkao u skup malih, neovisnih berberskih država poput Berghwate, Sijilmassa i Nekora, uz Tlemcen i Tahert u današnjem zapadnom Alžiru. [22] Berberi su nastavili oblikovati vlastitu verziju islama. Neki su, poput Banu Ifrana, zadržali vezu s radikalnim puritanskim islamskim sektama, dok su drugi, poput Berghwate, izgradili novu sinkretičku vjeru. [25] [26]

Barghawata (744–1058) Uredi

Barghawati su bili konfederacija berberskih skupina nastanjenih na atlantskoj obali Maroka, koje su pripadale plemenskoj podjeli Masmuda Berbera. [22] Nakon što su se udružili s pobunom sufri haridžija u Maroku protiv Umayyada, osnovali su nezavisnu državu (CE 744-1058) na području Tamesne na atlantskoj obali između Safija i Saléa pod vodstvom Tarifa al-Matgharija.

Emirat Sijilmasa (757 - 976) Uredi

Dinastija Midrarid ili Banu Midrar bili su dinastija Berbera koja je vladala regijom Tafilalt i osnovala grad Sijilmasa 757. [27]

Sijilmasa je bio srednjovjekovni marokanski grad i trgovački entrepôt na sjevernom rubu pustinje Sahare. Ruševine grada leže 8 kilometara uz rijeku Ziz u oazi Tafilalt u blizini grada Rissani. Povijest grada obilježila je nekoliko uzastopnih invazija Berberskih dinastija. Sve do 14. stoljeća, kao sjeverni kraj zapadne prekosaharske trgovačke rute, bio je jedno od najvažnijih trgovačkih središta Magreba tijekom srednjeg vijeka. [28]

Kraljevina Nekor (710–1019) Uredi

Kraljevina Nekor bila je emirat sa središtem u području Rif u Maroku. Njegov se glavni grad u početku nalazio u Temsamanu, a zatim se preselio u Nekor. Politiku je 710. godine poslije Krista osnovao Salih I ibn Mansur putem stipendije Kalifata. Pod njegovim vodstvom lokalna su berberska plemena prihvatila islam, ali su ga kasnije svrgnula u korist jednog az-Zejdija iz plemena Nafza. Nakon toga su se predomislili i ponovo imenovali Ibn Mansura. Njegova je dinastija, Banu Sālih, nakon toga vladala regijom do 1019. godine.

Godine 859. kraljevstvo je postalo podložno 62 brodskoj skupini Vikinga, koji su porazili mavarsku silu u Nekoru koja se pokušala ometati u njihovoj pljački na tom području. Nakon što su osam dana boravili u Maroku, Vikinzi su se vratili u Španjolsku i nastavili uz istočnu obalu. [29]

Dinastija Idrisid (789–974) Uredite

Dinastija Idrisid bila je muslimansko društvo sa sjedištem u Maroku [30], koje je vladalo od 788. do 974. Ime je dobio po osnivaču Idrisu I, praunuku Hasana ibn Alija, neki povjesničari smatraju da su Idrisidi utemeljitelji prvih Marokanska država. [31]

Utemeljitelji države Idrisid: Idris I i Idris II Edit

Do druge polovice 8. stoljeća najzapadnije regije Magreba, uključujući današnji Maroko, bile su učinkovito neovisne o Omejadskom kalifatu od berberskih pobuna predvođenih Kharijima koje su počele 739-40. [32] [33] Abasidski kalifat nakon 750. nije imao više uspjeha u ponovnoj uspostavi kontrole nad Marokom. [32]: 41 Rušenje istočne vlasti značilo je da su Maroko kontrolirali različita lokalna berberska plemena i kneževine koje su se pojavile otprilike u to vrijeme, poput Konfederacije Barghwata na atlantskoj obali i Midrarid Emirata u Sijilmasi. [32] [34]

Utemeljitelj dinastije Idrisid bio je Idris ibn Abdallah (788–791), [35] koji vodi svoje porijeklo od Alija ibn Ebi Taliba (umro 661) [35] i njegove supruge Fatime, kćeri islamskog proroka, Muhameda. Bio je praunuk Hasana ibn Alija. [36] [34]: 81 Nakon bitke kod Fakhkha, blizu Meke, između Abasida i pristaša potomaka proroka Muhameda, Idris ibn Abdallah pobjegao je u Magreb. Prvo je stigao u Tanger, najvažniji grad Maroka u to vrijeme, a do 788. godine nastanio se u Volubilisu (na arapskom jeziku poznat i kao Walili). [32]: 51

Moćni Avraba Berberi iz Volubilisa uzeli su Idrisa i učinili ga svojim 'imamom' (vjerskim vođom). [32]: 51 [34]: 81 Pleme Avraba podržalo je Kusaylu u njegovoj borbi protiv Umajadske vojske 670 -ih i 680 -ih. Do druge polovice 8. stoljeća nastanili su se u sjevernom Maroku, gdje je njihov vođa Ishak imao svoju bazu u rimskom gradu Volubilisu. Do tada su Avrabe već bile muslimanske, ali su živjele na području gdje je većina plemena bila ili kršćanska, židovska, hariđska ili poganska. Čini se da je Avraba pozdravio šerifijskog imama kao način da ojača svoju političku poziciju. Idris I, koji je bio vrlo aktivan u političkoj organizaciji Awrabe, započeo je potvrđujući svoj autoritet i radeći na potčinjavanju kršćanskog i židovskog plemena. 789. osnovao je naselje jugoistočno od Volubilisa, tzv Medinat Fas. Godine 791, Idris, otrovao me i ubio jedan abasidski agent. Iako nije ostavio muškog nasljednika, ubrzo nakon njegove smrti, njegova supruga Lalla Kanza bint Uqba al-Awrabi rodila mu je sina jedinca i nasljednika Idrisa II. Idrisov odani arapski bivši rob i saputnik Rashid odgojio je dječaka i preuzeo regentstvo države, u ime Awrabe. Rašida su 801. ubili Abasidi. Sljedeće godine, u dobi od 11 godina, Avraba je Idrisa II proglasila imamom. [32]: 51

Iako je svoju vlast proširio na veći dio sjevernog Maroka, sve do zapada sve do Tlemcena, Idris I. bio je potpuno ovisan o vodstvu Awrabe. Idris II je započeo svoju vladavinu slabljenjem moći Awrabe dočekujući arapske doseljenike u Waliliju i postavljajući dva Arapa za svog vezir i kadija. Tako se iz štićenika Avrabe pretvorio u njihovog suverena. Vođa Awrabe Ishak odgovorio je spletkareći protiv svog života s Aghlabidima iz Tunisa. Idris je reagirao tako što je ubio svog bivšeg zaštitnika Ishaka, a 809. godine premjestio je svoje sjedište vlade iz Avrabe u Waliliu u Fes, gdje je osnovao novo naselje po imenu Al-'Aliya. Idris II (791–828) razvio je grad Fez, koji je njegov otac ranije osnovao kao berberski trgovački grad. Ovdje je pozdravio dva vala arapske imigracije: jedan 818. iz Cordobe i drugi 824. iz Aghlabid Tunisa, dajući Fesu više arapski karakter od ostalih gradova Magreba. Kad je Idris II umro 828. godine, država Idrisid se prostirala od zapadnog Alžira do Sous -a u južnom Maroku i postala vodeća država Maroka, ispred kneževina Sijilmasa, Barghawata i Nekor koje su ostale izvan njihove kontrole. [32]: 51–52 [34]: 86

Nasljednici Idrisa II Edit

Moć dinastije polako će opadati nakon smrti Idrisa II. Pod njegovim sinom i nasljednikom Muhamedom (828. -836.) Kraljevstvo je podijeljeno između sedam njegove braće, pri čemu je osam idrisidskih državnika formirano u Maroku i zapadnom Alžiru. [37] Sam Muhammed došao je vladati Fesom, s nominalnom moći nad svojom braćom. Njegov brat Isa, koji je iz svoje baze u Chellahu dobio kontrolu nad obalnim regijama Tamesna u blizini Bou Regrega, brzo se pobunio protiv njega. Muhammed je svom bratu Omaru, koji je dobio teritorije oko Rifa, povjerio da kazni Isa. Umar je uspješno istjerao Isaa s vlasti, koji je bio prisiljen skloniti se u Chellah, a zatim se okrenuo prema sjeveru kako bi kaznio svog drugog brata al-Qasima u Tangeru jer se ranije odbio pridružiti njemu i Muhammedu protiv Isaa. Al-Qasim je pobjegao u Asilah i nastanio se u blizini, dok je Muhammed kao nagradu dao Omeru namjesništvo u Tangeru. Nakon Umarove smrti u rujnu ili listopadu 835., njegovom sinu Ali ibn Omaru redom su dodijeljena sva očeva vlasništva. Sam Muhammed umro je sedam mjeseci kasnije u ožujku ili travnju 836. Njegov sin Ali ibn Muhammed naslijedio je njegov položaj i vladao 13 godina (836–849) na kompetentan način, osiguravajući stabilnost države. Nakon njegove smrti 849. godine naslijedio ga je njegov brat Yahya ibn Muhammad (ili Yahya I), koji je također uživao u mirnoj vladavini. [38]

Za to vrijeme islamska i arapska kultura stekle su uporište u gradovima, a Maroko je profitirao od transsaharske trgovine, kojom su dominirali muslimanski (uglavnom berberski) trgovci. Grad Fes također je procvjetao i postao važno vjersko središte. [32]: 52 Tijekom Yahyeve vladavine stiglo je više arapskih imigranata i osnovane su poznate džamije al-Qarawiyyin i al-Andalusiyyin. [38] Čak i tada, islamska i arapska kultura samo su učinile svoj utjecaj u gradovima, pri čemu se velika većina stanovništva Maroka i dalje koristila berberskim jezicima i često se pridržavala islamskih heterodoksnih i heretičkih doktrina. Idrisidi su uglavnom bili vladari gradova i imali su malu moć nad većinom stanovništva zemlje. [32]: 52

Odbij i pad Uredi

Nakon smrti Yahye I 863. godine naslijedio ga je njegov manje kompetentan sin, Yahya II, koji je područje Idrisida opet podijelio među šire obitelji. Yahya II umro je u neizvjesnim okolnostima 866. godine nakon što je pobjegao iz svoje palače. Nakon epizode nereda u Fesu, njegov rođak Ali ibn Omer preuzeo je vlast. [38] Godine 868., pod vodstvom Abd al-Razzaqa, berberski harijski sufri plemena Madyuna, Ghayata i Miknasa iz regije Fes formirali su zajednički front protiv Idrisida. Iz svoje baze u Sefrouu uspjeli su pobijediti Alija ibn Omera i zauzeti Fes. Fes se, međutim, odbio pokoriti, a drugi Yahya, sin al-Qasima, uspio je ponovno zauzeti grad i uspostaviti se kao novi vladar, Yahya III. Tako je vladajuća linija prešla sa Muhamedovih sinova na Umarovog sina, a sada na sinove al-Qasima. [32]: 52 [38]

Yahya III je vladao cijelim carstvom Idrisida i nastavio napadati Sufris. Međutim, 905. godine on je poginuo u borbi protiv drugog člana obitelji, Yahya ibn Idris ibn Omer (Umarov unuk), koji je tada preuzeo vlast kao Yahya IV. [38] U ovom trenutku, međutim, Fatimidi na istoku počeli su intervenirati u Maroku, nadajući se da će proširiti svoj utjecaj. Godine 917. Miknasa i njen vođa Masala ibn Habus, djelujući u ime svojih fatimidskih saveznika, napali su Fes i natjerali Yahya IV da prizna suverenitet Fatimida, prije nego što su ga deponirali 919. [38] [40] ili 921. [32]: 63 On naslijedio je njegov rođak Musa ibn Abul 'Afiya, koji je već bio zadužen za ostatak zemlje. Idrisid Hassan I al-Hajam, unuk al-Qasima, uspio je oduzeti kontrolu nad Fezom od 925. godine, ali se 927. Musa vratio, zauzeo Hasana i ubio ga, označavajući zadnji put da su Idrisidi držali vlast u Fesu. [38]

Iz Fesa su Miknasa počeli progoniti obitelj Idrisid diljem Maroka. Obitelj se sklonila u tvrđavu Hajar an-Nasr u sjevernom Maroku, gdje ih je Miknasa opsjedala. [38] Međutim, ubrzo nakon toga izbio je građanski rat među Miknasama kada je Musa 931. godine prešao na vjernost Umayyadima iz Kordobe u pokušaju da stekne veću neovisnost. Fatimidi su poslali Humejda ibn Jasala (ili Hamida [32]), nećaka Masale ibn Habusa, da se suoči s Musom, pobijedivši ga 933. godine i natjeravši ga da se vrati u red. [38] [32]: 63 Idrisidi su iskoristili situaciju da slome opsadu svoje tvrđave i poraze postrojbe Mikanasa Zenata. Međutim, nakon što su Fatimidi otišli, Musa je još jednom odbacio njihov autoritet i prepoznao umajadskog halifu. Fatimidi su poslali svog generala Maysura da mu se ponovno suprotstavi, a ovaj put je pobjegao. Progonili su ga i ubili Idrisidi. [38]

Nakon toga Idrisidi su se naselili među plemena Jbala u regiji Rif u sjeverozapadnom Maroku, gdje su djelomično obnovili svoju bazu moći iz Hajar an-Nasra, naizmjenično priznajući ili Umayyade iz Kordobe (pod Abd ar-Rahmanom III.) Ili Fatimide kao gospodare . [38] Al-Qasim al-Gannoun ibn Muhammed vladao je ovdje od 938. do 948. godine u ime Fatimida. [38] [40] Njegov sin i nasljednik, Ahmad, poznat kao Abul-'Aysh, umjesto toga je prepoznao Umayyade, ali se na njih nasukao kad im je odbio dopustiti da zauzmu Tanger. Opsjednut je tamo i prisiljen na povlačenje, zadržavajući samo područja oko al-Basre i Asilaha, dok su Umayyadi zauzeli ostatak sjevernog Maroka. [38] Na kraju je otišao u Al-Andalus, ostavljajući svog brata Hasana ibn al-Qasima al-Gannouna za novog vođu 954. [38] [40] Godine 958. Fatimidi su poslali novog generala, Jawhara, da napadne Maroko. Njegov uspjeh natjerao je Idriside da ponovno prihvate fatimidsko prevlast. [38] [32]: 75 Međutim, ubrzo nakon toga, kada su Jawhar i Fatimidi bili zauzeti preuzimanjem kontrole nad Egiptom, Umayyadi su se vratili. 973. njihov general, Ghalib, napao je Maroko. [32] Idrisidi su protjerani sa svojih teritorija, a al-Hasan, zajedno s mnogim drugim Idrisidima ili njihovim sinovima, odvedeni su kao taoci u Kordobu 974. [38] Preostali Idrisidi u Maroku priznali su vladavinu Umayyada. [32] Al-Hasan je kasnije protjeran iz Kordobe i pobjegao u Egipat, koji je sada bio pod vlašću Fatimida. Godine 979. Buluggin ibn Ziri, fatimidski namjesnik Ifriqije (nakon što su fatimidski halifi imali glavni grad u Kairu), vratio se kako bi porazio Omejade i ponovo nametnuo prevlast fatimida u zapadnom Magrebu. Godine 985. [40] vratio se u Maroko uz fatimidsku podršku, ali iste godine poražen je od drugog generala Umajada kojeg je poslao al-Mansur, a zatim ubijen na putu za Cordobu. [38] To je donijelo konačan kraj dinastiji Idrisid. Umajadi su zadržali kontrolu nad sjevernim Marokom sve do sloma njihovog kalifata početkom 11. stoljeća. Nakon toga, Marokom su dominirala razna plemena Zenata Berber. [34]: 91 [32]: 82 Do uspona Sanhaja Almoravida kasnije u stoljeću, Maghrawa je kontrolirala Fes, Sijilmasu i Aghmat, dok je Banu Ifran vladao Tlemcenom, Saléom (Chellah) i regijom Tadla. [34]: 91

Naslijeđeno uređivanje

Unatoč tome što su pali s vlasti, Idrisidi su ipak iznjedrili mnoge šerijatske obitelji koje su bile prisutne stoljećima koja dolaze. Neki Marokanci i danas tvrde da potječu od njih. [38] U 11. stoljeću jedna obitelj Idrisida potječe od Umara (sina Idrisa II.), Hammudi su uspjeli dobiti vlast u nekoliko gradova sjevernog Maroka i južne Španjolske. [38] [41] U Fesu i u gradu Moulay Idriss (u blizini Volubilisa), grobnice Idrisa II i Idrisa I, s vremenom su se razvile u važne vjerske komplekse i hodočasnička mjesta (npr. Zawiya od Moulay Idris II). [42] [43] Nekoliko istaknutih šerifanskih obitelji u Fezu vodi svoje loze do Idrisa I, [44]: 488, a neke od njih su imale ulogu u održavanju ili obnovi Zavije Idris II u gradu. [45]

Al-Andalus Edit

Abd al-Mu'min se tada javio kao poručnik Mehdija Ibn Tumarta. Između 1130. i njegove smrti 1163., Abd al-Mu'min ne samo da je iskorijenio Murabite (Almoravide), već je proširio svoju moć nad cijelom sjevernom Afrikom sve do Egipta, postavši amir Marakeša 1149. godine.

Al-Andalus je pratio sudbinu Afrike. Između 1146. i 1173., Almohadi su postupno otimali kontrolu od Murabita nad mavarskim kneževinama u Iberiji. Almohadi su prenijeli glavni grad muslimanske Iberije iz Córdobe u Sevillu. Oni su tamo osnovali veliku džamiju, a njen toranj, Giralda, podignut je 1184. godine u znak obilježavanja pristupanja Ya'quba I. Almohadi su tamo izgradili i palaču koja se zove Al-Muwarak na mjestu današnjeg Alcázara iz Seville.

Prinčevi Almohada imali su dužu i ugledniju karijeru od Murabita. Nasljednici Abd al-Mumina, Abu Yaqub Yusuf (Yusuf I, vladao 1163–1184) i Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (Yaʻqūb I, vladao 1184–1199), obojica su bili sposobni ljudi. U početku je njihova vlada tjerala mnoge židovske i kršćanske podanike da se sklone u rastuće kršćanske države Portugal, Kastilju i Aragon. Na kraju su postali manje fanatični od Murabita, a Ya'qub al-Mansur je bio vrlo uspješan čovjek koji je napisao dobar arapski stil i zaštitio filozofa Averroesa. Njegov naslov "al-Manṣūr"(" Pobjednik ") zaslužen je pobjedom nad Alfonsom VIII od Kastilje u bitci kod Alarcosa (1195).

Međutim, od vremena Jusufa II., Almohadi su upravljali svojim suvjernicima u Iberiji i središnjoj sjevernoj Africi preko poručnika, a njihova su se područja izvan Maroka tretirala kao provincije. Kad su almohadski emiri prešli tjesnac, trebalo je voditi džihad protiv kršćana, a zatim se vratiti u Maroko. [46]

Držanje godina Edit

Godine 1212. almohadski kalif Muhammed 'al-Nasir' (1199.-1214.), Nasljednik al-Mansura, nakon prvotno uspješnog napredovanja na sjever, poražen je savezom četiri kršćanska kralja Kastilje, Aragona, Navare i Portugal, u bitci kod Las Navas de Tolosa u Sierra Moreni. Bitka je slomila napredak Almohada, ali su kršćanske moći ostale previše neorganizirane da bi od toga odmah profitirale.

Prije svoje smrti 1213. godine, al-Nasir je svog mladog desetogodišnjeg sina imenovao sljedećim halifom Jusufom II. "Al-Mustansir". Almohadi su prošli kroz razdoblje djelotvornog regentstva za mladog kalifa, s moći koju je vršila oligarhija starijih članova obitelji, birokrati palače i vodeći plemići. Ministri u Almohadu pomno su pregovarali o nizu primirja s kršćanskim kraljevstvima, koja su ostala manje-više na snazi ​​sljedećih petnaest godina (gubitak Alcácera do Sal-a od Kraljevine Portugal 1217. bio je iznimka).

Početkom 1224. mladenački halifa umro je u nesreći, bez ikakvih nasljednika. Birokrati palače u Marakešu, predvođeni wazir Osman ibn Jam'i, brzo je osmislio izbor svog starijeg ujaka, Abd al-Wahida I 'al-Makhlua, za novog almohadskog halifu. No, brzo imenovanje uznemirilo je druge grane obitelji, osobito braću pokojnog al-Nasira, koji su vladali u al-Andalu. Izazov je odmah postavio jedan od njih, tadašnji guverner u Murciji, koji se proglasio kalifom Abdallah al-Adil. Uz pomoć svoje braće, brzo je preuzeo kontrolu nad al-Andalusom. Njegov glavni savjetnik, sjenoviti Abu Zayd ibn Yujjan, uključio se u njegove kontakte u Marakešu i osigurao smjenu i ubistvo Abd al-Wahida I te protjerivanje klana al-Jami'i.

Ovaj udar je okarakteriziran kao kamenčić koji je konačno razbio al-Andalus. Bio je to prvi unutarnji udar među Almohadima. Klan Almohada, unatoč povremenim nesuglasicama, uvijek je ostao čvrsto povezan i lojalno iza dinastičkog prvenstva. Ubilačko kršenje dinastičke i ustavne ispravnosti halife al-Adila narušilo je njegovu prihvatljivost za drugi Almohad šejhovi. Jedan od protivnika bio je njegov rođak, Abd Allah al-Bayyasi ("Baezan"), almohadski namjesnik Jaéna, koji je uzeo šačicu sljedbenika i odletio do brda oko Baeze. Uspostavio je pobunjenički logor i sklopio savez s dosad mirnim Ferdinandom III od Kastilje. Osetivši da mu je veći prioritet Marakeš, gdje je rekuzent Almohad šejhokupio se iza Yahye, drugog al-Nasirovog sina, al-Adil je malo obraćao pažnju na ovu grupu nesposobnih.

Reconquista Edit

Godine 1225. grupa pobunjenika Abd Allah al-Bayyasija u pratnji velike kastiljske vojske spustila se s brda opsjedajući gradove poput Jaéna i Andújara. Upali su po regijama Jaén, Cordova i Vega de Granada, a prije kraja godine al-Bayyasi se etablirao u gradu Cordovi. Osjetivši vakuum snage, i Alfonso IX iz Leona i Sancho II iz Portugala iste su godine oportunistički naredili upade na andaluzijski teritorij. S oružjem Almohada, ljudima i gotovinom poslanim u Maroko kako bi se pomoglo kalifu al-Adilu da se nametne u Marakešu, bilo je malo sredstava za zaustaviti iznenadni napad. Krajem 1225., s iznenađujućom lakoćom, portugalski napadači stigli su do okolice Seville. Znajući da su brojčano nadjačani, guverneri grada Almohada odbili su se suprotstaviti portugalskim napadačima, što je nagnalo zgroženo stanovništvo Seville da preuzme stvari u svoje ruke, podigne miliciju i sam izađe na teren. Rezultat je bio pravi masakr-portugalski oružnici lako su pokosili gomilu slabo naoružanih mještana. Rečeno je da je tisuće, možda čak 20.000, ubijeno prije zidina Seville. Slična je katastrofa iste godine zadesila sličnu popularnu naplatu Murcijana u Aspeu. No, kršćanski su napadači zaustavljeni u Cáceresu i Requeni. Povjerenje u vodstvo Almohada bili su ozbiljno uzdrmani ovim događajima-katastrofe su odmah okrivljene zbog ometanja halife al-Adila i nesposobnosti i kukavičluka njegovih poručnika, za uspjehe pripisane lokalnim vođama koje nisu Almohadi i koji su okupili obranu.

Ali, Ad-Adilovo bogatstvo nakratko je podignuto. Al-Bayyasi je kao pomoć za kastiljsku pomoć dao Ferdinandu III. Tri strateške pogranične tvrđave: Baños de la Encina, Salvatierra (stari tvrđava Red Calatrava u blizini Ciudad Reala) i Capilla. No Capilla ih je odbio predati, prisilivši Kastiljane na dugu i tešku opsadu. Hrabri prkos malene Kapile i spektakl al-Bayyasijevih brodskih zaliha kastiljanskim opsjedačima šokirali su Andalužane i vratili osjećaje prema almohadskom halifi. U Cordovi je izbio narodni ustanak-al-Bayyasi je ubijen, a njegova glava poslana kao trofej u Marakeš. Ali halifa al-Adil nije se dugo radovao ovoj pobjedi-u oktobru 1227. ubili su ga u Marakešu partizani Yahya, koji je odmah proglašen novim almohadskim halifom Yahyaom "al-Mu'tasim".

Andaluzijski ogranak Almohada odbio je prihvatiti ovakav razvoj događaja. Al-Adilin brat, tada u Sevilli, proglasio se novim almohadskim halifom Abd al-Ala Idrisom I 'al-Ma'munom'. Odmah je kupio primirje od Ferdinanda III u zamjenu za 300.000 maravedis, dopuštajući mu da organizira i otpremi veći dio vojske Almohada u Španjolskoj preko tjesnaca 1228. godine kako bi se suprotstavio Yahji.

Iste godine, Portugalci i Leonezi obnovili su svoje napade duboko na muslimansko područje, u osnovi nekontrolirano. Smatrajući da ih Almohadi nisu uspjeli zaštititi, narodni su se ustanci dogodili u cijelom al-Andalu. Grad za gradom svrgavali su svoje nesretne guvernere Almohada i na njihovo mjesto postavljali lokalne moćnike. Murcijanski moćnik, Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Hud al-Judhami, koji je tvrdio da potječe iz dinastije Banu Hud koja je nekoć vladala starom tajfom u Saragosi, pojavio se kao središnja figura ovih pobuna, sustavno izmještajući garnizone Almohada kroz središnju Španjolsku. U listopadu 1228., kada je Španjolska praktički sve izgubila, al-Ma'mun je napustio Sevillu, odnijevši sa sobom u Maroko ono malo što je ostalo od vojske Almohada. Ibn Hud je odmah poslao svoje emisare u daleki Bagdad kako bi ponudio priznanje abasidskom halifi, iako je za sebe uzeo kvazi-kalifalsku titulu, 'al-Mutawwakil'.

Odlazak al-Ma'muna 1228. označio je kraj Almohadove ere u Španjolskoj. Ibn Hud i drugi lokalni andaluzijski moćnici nisu uspjeli zaustaviti sve veću poplavu kršćanskih napada, koju su gotovo svake godine pokrenuli portugalski Sancho II, Alfonso IX iz Leona, Ferdinand III od Kastilje i Jakov I. od Aragona. The next twenty years saw a massive advance in the Christian reconquista – the old great Andalusian citadels fell in a grand sweep: Mérida and Badajoz in 1230 (to Leon), Majorca in 1230 (to Aragon), Beja in 1234 (to Portugal), Cordova in 1236 (to Castile), Valencia in 1238 (to Aragon), Niebla-Huelva in 1238 (to Leon), Silves in 1242 (to Portugal), Murcia in 1243 (to Castile), Jaén in 1246 (to Castile), Alicante in 1248 (to Castile), culminating in the fall of the greatest of Andalusian cities, the ex-Almohad capital of Seville, into Christian hands in 1248. Ferdinand III of Castile entered Seville as a conqueror on December 22, 1248.

The Andalusians were helpless before this onslaught. Ibn Hudd had attempted to check the Leonese advance early on, but most of his Andalusian army was destroyed at the battle of Alange in 1230. Ibn Hud scrambled to move remaining arms and men to save threatened or besieged Andalusian citadels, but with so many attacks at once, it was a hopeless endeavor. After Ibn Hud's death in 1238, some of the Andalusian cities, in a last-ditch effort to save themselves, offered themselves once again to the Almohads, but to no avail. The Almohads would not return.

With the departure of the Almohads, the Nasrid dynasty ("Banū Naṣr", Arabic: بنو نصر ‎) rose to power in Granada. After the great Christian advance of 1228–1248, the Emirate of Granada was practically all that remained of old al-Andalus. Some of the captured citadels (e.g. Murcia, Jaen, Niebla) were reorganized as tributary vassals for a few more years, but most were annexed by the 1260s. Granada alone would remain independent for an additional 250 years, flourishing as the new center of al-Andalus.

Collapse in the Maghreb Edit

In their African holdings, the Almohads encouraged the establishment of Christians even in Fez, and after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa they occasionally entered into alliances with the kings of Castile. They were successful in expelling the garrisons placed in some of the coast towns by the Norman kings of Sicily. The history of their decline differs from that of the Almoravids, whom they had displaced. They were not assailed by a great religious movement, but lost territories, piecemeal, by the revolt of tribes and districts. Their most effective enemies were the Banu Marin (Marinids) who founded the next dynasty. The last representative of the line, Idris II, 'al-Wathiq', was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269.

Fatimid, Umayyad and Zenata polities (c. 900 – c. 1060) Edit

This equilibrium was upset in the early 900s, when the Fatimid dynasty arrived in the Maghreb. Not long after seizing power in Ifriqiya, the Fatimids invaded Morocco, conquering both Fez and Sijilmassa. Morocco was fragmented in the aftermath, with Fatimid governors, Idrisid loyalists, new puritan groups and interventionists from Umayyad al-Andalus all fighting over the region. Opportunistic local governors sold and re-sold their support to the highest bidder. In 965, the Fatimid caliph al-Muizz invaded Morocco one last time and succeeded in establishing some order. Soon after, however, the Fatimids shifted their empire eastward to Egypt, with a new capital in Cairo. [ potreban je citat ]

The Fatimids had assigned the Zirids, a Zenaga Berber clan centered in Ifriqiya, to watch their western dominions. The Zirids, however, were unable to prevent Morocco from spinning out of their control and crumbling into the hands of a collection of local Zenata Berber chieftains, most of them clients of the Caliph of Cordoba, such as the Maghrawa in the region of Fez and itinerant rivals, the Banu Ifran to the east. [ potreban je citat ]

After 1060 a few Berber dynasties rose to power south of the Atlas Mountains and expanded their rule northward, replacing local rulers. [ potreban je citat ] The 11th and 12th centuries witnessed the founding of several significant Berber dynasties led by religious reformers, each dynasty based on a tribal confederation that dominated the Maghreb and Al-Andalus for more than 200 years. These were the Berber dynasties of the Almoravids, Almohads, Marinids and Wattasids. [ potreban je citat ]

Almoravid dynasty (c. 1060 – 1147) Edit

The Almoravid dynasty (c.1060–1147) originated among the Lamtuna nomadic Berber tribe belonging to the Sanhaja. They succeeded in unifying Morocco after it had been divided among several Zenata principalities in the late 10th century, and annexed the Emirate of Sijilmasa and the Barghawata (Tamesna) into their realm.

Under Yusuf ibn Tashfin, the Almoravids were invited by the Muslim taifa princes of Al-Andalus to defend their territories from the Christian kingdoms. Their involvement was crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus. After having succeeded in repelling Christian forces in 1086, Yusuf returned to Iberia in 1090 and annexed most of the major taifas. [48]

Almoravid power began to decline in the first half of the 12th century, as the dynasty was weakened after its defeat at the battle of Ourique and because of the agitation of the Almohads. The conquest of the city of Marrakech by the Almohads in 1147 marked the fall of the dynasty. However, fragments of the Almoravids (the Banu Ghaniya) continued to struggle in the Balearic Islands and in Tunisia.

The Berbers of the Tamazgha in the early Middle Ages could be roughly classified into three major groups: the Zenata across the north, the Masmuda concentrated in central Morocco, and the Sanhaja, clustered in two areas: the western part of the Sahara and the hills of the eastern Maghreb. [49] [50] The eastern Sanhaja included the Kutama Berbers, who had been the base of the Fatimid rise in the early 10th century, and the Zirid dynasty, who ruled Ifriqiya as vassals of the Fatimids after the latter moved to Egypt in 972. The western Sanhaja were divided into several tribes: the Gazzula and the Lamta in the Draa valley and the foothills of the Anti-Atlas range further south, encamped in the western Sahara, were the Massufa, the Lamtuna and the Banu Warith and most southerly of all, the Gudala, in littoral Mauritania down to the borderlands of the Senegal River.

The western Sanhaja had been converted to Islam some time in the 9th century. They were subsequently united in the 10th century and, with the zeal of new converts, launched several campaigns against the "Sudanese" (pagan peoples of sub-Saharan Africa). [51] Under their king Tinbarutan ibn Usfayshar, the Sanhaja Lamtuna erected (or captured) the citadel of Awdaghust, a critical stop on the trans-Saharan trade route. After the collapse of the Sanhaja union, Awdagust passed over to the Ghana empire and the trans-Saharan routes were taken over by the Zenata Maghrawa of Sijilmassa. The Maghrawa also exploited this disunion to dislodge the Sanhaja Gazzula and Lamta out of their pasturelands in the Sous and Draa valleys. Around 1035, the Lamtuna chieftain Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Tifat (alias Tarsina), tried to reunite the Sanhaja desert tribes, but his reign lasted less than three years.

Around 1040, Yahya ibn Ibrahim, a chieftain of the Gudala (and brother-in-law of the late Tarsina), went on pilgrimage to Mecca. On his return, he stopped by Kairouan in Ifriqiya, where he met Abu Imran al-Fasi, a native of Fes and a jurist and scholar of the Sunni Maliki school. At this time, Ifriqiya was in ferment. The Zirid ruler al-Muizz ibn Badis, was openly contemplating breaking with his Shi'ite Fatimid overlords in Cairo, and the jurists of Kairouan were agitating for him to do so. Within this heady atmosphere, Yahya and Abu Imran fell into conversation on the state of the faith in their western homelands, and Yahya expressed his disappointment at the lack of religious education and negligence of Islamic law among his southern Sanhaja people. With Abu Imran's recommendation, Yahya ibn Ibrahim made his way to the ribat of Waggag ibn Zelu in the Sous valley of southern Morocco, to seek out a Maliki teacher for his people. Waggag assigned him one of his residents, Abdallah ibn Yasin.

Abdallah ibn Yasin was a Gazzula Berber, and probably a convert rather than a born Muslim. His name can be read as "son of Ya Sin" (the title of the 36th Sura of the Qur'an), suggesting he had obliterated his family past and was "re-born" of the Holy Book. [52] Ibn Yasin certainly had the ardor of a puritan zealot his creed was mainly characterized by a rigid formalism and a strict adherence to the dictates of the Qur'an, and the Orthodox tradition. [53] (Chroniclers such as al-Bakri allege Ibn Yasin's learning was superficial.) Ibn Yasin's initial meetings with the Gudala people went poorly. As he had more ardor than depth, Ibn Yasin's arguments were disputed by his audience. He responded to questioning with charges of apostasy and handed out harsh punishments for the slightest deviations. The Gudala soon had enough and expelled him almost immediately after the death of his protector, Yahya ibn Ibrahim, sometime in the 1040s.

Ibn Yasin, however, found a more favorable reception among the neighboring Lamtuna people. [53] Probably sensing the useful organizing power of Ibn Yasin's pious fervor, the Lamtuna chieftain Yahya ibn Umar al-Lamtuni invited the man to preach to his people. The Lamtuna leaders, however, kept Ibn Yasin on a careful leash, forging a more productive partnership between them. Invoking stories of the early life of Muhammad, Ibn Yasin preached that conquest was a necessary addendum to Islamicization, that it was not enough to merely adhere to God's law, but necessary to also destroy opposition to it. In Ibn Yasin's ideology, anything and everything outside of Islamic law could be characterized as "opposition". He identified tribalism, in particular, as an obstacle. He believed it was not enough to urge his audiences to put aside their blood loyalties and ethnic differences, and embrace the equality of all Muslims under the Sacred Law, it was necessary to make them do so. For the Lamtuna leadership, this new ideology dovetailed with their long desire to refound the Sanhaja union and recover their lost dominions. In the early 1050s, the Lamtuna, under the joint leadership of Yahya ibn Umar and Abdallah ibn Yasin—soon calling themselves the al-Murabitin (Almoravids)—set out on a campaign to bring their neighbors over to their cause.

Marinids dynasty Edit

Although the Marinids claimed Arab ancestry [54] through a North Arabian tribe, [55] they were of Berber origin. Following the arrival of the Arab Bedouins in North Africa in the middle of the eleventh century, the Marinids were obliged to leave their lands in the region of Biskra, in present-day Algeria. [56] [57] They first frequented the area between Sijilmasa and Figuig, present-day Morocco, [58] [59] at times reaching as far as the Zab [fr] , present-day Algeria. [60] They would move seasonally from the Figuig oasis to the Moulouya River basin. [61] Following the arrival of Arab tribes in the area in the 11th-12th centuries, the Marinids moved to the north-west of present-day Algeria, [58] before entering en-masse into Morocco by the beginning of the 13th century. [62]

The Marinids took their name from their ancestor, Marin ibn Wartajan al-Zenati. [63]

Rise Edit

After arriving in present-day Morocco, they initially submitted to the Almohad dynasty, which was at the time the ruling house. After successfully contributing to the Battle of Alarcos, in central Spain, the tribe started to assert itself as a political power. [34] Starting in 1213, they began to tax farming communities of today's north-eastern Morocco (the area between Nador and Berkane). The relationship between them and the Almohads became strained and starting in 1215, there were regular outbreaks of fighting between the two parties. In 1217, they tried to occupy the eastern part of present-day Morocco, but they were expelled, pulling back and settling in the eastern Rif mountains where they remained for nearly 30 years. During their stay in the Rif, the Almohad state suffered huge blows, losing large territories to the Christians in Spain, while the Hafsids of Ifriqia broke away in 1229, followed by the Zayyanid dynasty of Tlemcen in 1235.

Between 1244 and 1248 the Marinids were able to take Taza, Rabat, Salé, Meknes and Fez from the weakened Almohads. [64] The Marinid leadership installed in Fes declared war on the Almohads, fighting with the aid of Christian mercenaries. Abu Yusuf Yaqub (1259–1286) captured Marrakech in 1269. [65]

Apogee Edit

After the Nasrids of Granada ceded the town of Algeciras to the Marinids, Abu Yusuf went to Al-Andalus to support the ongoing struggle against the Kingdom of Castile. The Marinid dynasty then tried to extend its control to include the commercial traffic of the Strait of Gibraltar.

It was in this period that the Spanish Christians were first able to take the fighting to mainland present-day Morocco: in 1260 and 1267 they attempted an invasion, but both attempts were defeated. After gaining a foothold in Spain, the Marinids became active in the conflict between Muslims and Christians in Iberia. To gain absolute control of the trade in the Strait of Gibraltar, from their base at Algeciras they started the conquest of several Spanish towns: by the year 1294 they had occupied Rota, Tarifa and Gibraltar.

In 1276 they founded Fes Jdid, which they made their administrative and military centre. While Fes had been a prosperous city throughout the Almohad period, even becoming the largest city in the world during that time, [66] it was in the Marinid period that Fes reached its golden age, a period which marked the beginning of an official, historical narrative for the city. [67] [68] It is from the Marinid period that Fes' reputation as an important intellectual centre largely dates, they established the first madrasas in the city and country. [69] [70] [71] The principal monuments in the medina, the residences and public buildings, date from the Marinid period. [72]

Despite internal infighting, Abu Said Uthman II (r. 1310–1331) initiated huge construction projects across the land. Several madrasas were built, the Al-Attarine Madrasa being the most famous. The building of these madrasas were necessary to create a dependent bureaucratic class, in order to undermine the marabouts and Sharifian elements.

The Marinids also strongly influenced the policy of the Emirate of Granada, from which they enlarged their army in 1275. In the 13th century, the Kingdom of Castile made several incursions into their territory. In 1260, Castilian forces raided Salé and, in 1267, initiated a full-scale invasion, but the Marinids repelled them.

At the height of their power, during the rule of Abu al-Hasan Ali (r. 1331–1348), the Marinid army was large and disciplined. It consisted of 40,000 Zenata cavalry, while Arab nomads contributed to the cavalry and Andalusians were included as archers. The personal bodyguard of the sultan consisted of 7,000 men, and included Christian, Kurdish and Black African elements. [73] Under Abu al-Hasan another attempt was made to reunite the Maghreb. In 1337 the Abdalwadid kingdom of Tlemcen was conquered, followed in 1347 by the defeat of the Hafsid empire in Ifriqiya, which made him master of a huge territory, which spanned from southern present-day Morocco to Tripoli. However, within the next year, a revolt of Arab tribes in southern Tunisia made them lose their eastern territories. The Marinids had already suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of a Portuguese-Castilian coalition in the Battle of Río Salado in 1340, and finally had to withdraw from Andalusia, only holding on to Algeciras until 1344.

In 1348 Abu al-Hasan was deposed by his son Abu Inan Faris, who tried to reconquer Algeria and Tunisia. Despite several successes, he was strangled by his own vizir in 1358, after which the dynasty began to decline.

Odbijte uređivanje

After the death of Abu Inan Faris in 1358, the real power lay with the viziers, while the Marinid sultans were paraded and forced to succeed each other in quick succession. The county was divided and political anarchy set in, with different viziers and foreign powers supporting different factions. In 1359 Hintata tribesmen from the High Atlas came down and occupied Marakesh, capital of their Almohad ancestors, which they would govern independently until 1526. To the south of Marakesh, Sufi mystics claimed autonomy, and in the 1370s Azemmour broke off under a coalition of merchants and Arab clan leaders of the Banu Sabih. To the east, the Zianid and Hafsid families reemerged and to the north, the Europeans were taking advantage of this instability by attacking the coast. Meanwhile, unruly wandering Arab Bedouin tribes increasingly spread anarchy, which accelerated the decline of the empire.

In the 15th century, it was hit by a financial crisis, after which the state had to stop financing the different marabouts and Sharifian families, which had previously been useful instruments in controlling different tribes. The political support of these marabouts and Sharifians halted, and it splintered into different entities. In 1399 Tetouan was taken and its population was massacred and in 1415 the Portuguese captured Ceuta. After the sultan Abdalhaqq II (1421–1465) tried to break the power of the Wattasids, he was executed.

Marinid rulers after 1420 came under the control of the Wattasids, who exercised a regency as Abd al-Haqq II became Sultan one year after his birth. The Wattasids however refused to give up the Regency after Abd al-Haqq came to age. [74]

In 1459, Abd al-Haqq II managed a massacre of the Wattasid family, breaking their power. His reign, however, brutally ended as he was murdered during the 1465 revolt. [75] This event saw the end of the Marinid dynasty as Muhammad ibn Ali Amrani-Joutey, leader of the Sharifs, was proclaimed Sultan in Fes. He was in turn overthrown in 1471 by Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya, one of the two the surviving Wattasids from the 1459 massacre, who instigated the Wattasid dynasty.


TIMELINE

7th and 8th Centuries AD - Arab invasion Idris founds the first major Muslim dynasty.

10-17th Centuries - Dynasties and religious movements come and go, including the Almoravid movement which at its peak controlled Morocco and parts of present-day Algeria and Spain.

1904 - France and Spain carve out zones of influence.

1912 - Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Treaty of Fez.

1956 - End of French protectorate after unrest and strong nationalist sentiment. Spain keeps its two coastal enclaves. Sultan Mohammed becomes king in 1957.

1961 - Death of King Mohammed King Hassan II comes to power.

1975-76 - Morocco annexes Western Sahara, but faces an ongoing guerrilla battle for independence from local Saharawi people.

1998 - Morocco's first opposition-led government comes to power.


Casablanca bombings

2003 May - More than 40 killed when suicide bombers attack several sites in Casablanca, including a Spanish restaurant and Jewish community centre.

2004 February - Powerful earthquake hits the north more than 500 people are killed.

2004 July - Free trade agreement with the US comes into effect. It follows Washington's designation of Morocco as a major non-Nato ally.

2005 September-October - Hundreds of African migrants try to storm Morocco's borders with the Spanish enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta. Morocco deports hundreds of the illegal migrants.

2005 December - Truth commission investigating human rights abuses during the rule of King Hassan II says 592 people were killed between 1956-99.

2006 January - Spanish Premier Zapatero visits the Spanish enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta. He's the first Spanish leader in 25 years to make an official visit to the territories.

2007 April - Three suspected suicide bombers blow themselves up in Casablanca, a few weeks after a suicide blast in an internet cafe weeks earlier.

Two suicide bombers blow themselves up outside US diplomatic offices in Casablanca.

Morocco unveils an autonomy blueprint for Western Sahara to the United Nations. Independence movement Polisario rejects the plan and puts forwards its own proposal.

2007 June - Morocco and the Polisario Front hold UN-sponsored talks in New York but fail to come to any agreement.

2007 September - Parliamentary elections. The conservative Istiqlal party, a member of the ruling coalition, wins the most votes.

2007 November - Spanish King Juan Carlos visits Ceuta and Melilla, angering Morocco which demands the return of the enclaves.


Moroccan Sahara: There is Need within AU To Understand Historical Facts – CEDS –

Within the African Union, there is the need for a strategy that would make it possible to understand the historical facts linked to the issue of the Moroccan Sahara, said director general of the Center for Diplomatic and Strategic Studies (CEDS), Socrate Diallo. “At the level of the AU, all those who are favorable to the Moroccan issue must put in place a strategy of influence which allows everyone to understand the historical fact that we are, in this case, in a territory which was dismembered” in the days of colonization, he told MAP, on the sidelines of a sub-regional seminar organized, on Wednesday, by the Pan-African Strategies Institute (IPS), a Senegalese Think Tank, on the theme “Thinking about the Sahara Question and promoting innovative solutions”. “The question of the southern Moroccan provinces can only be understood from the angle of the broad autonomy project proposed by Morocco and which has been largely consolidated by the constitutional reform which released all the energies and synergies and which has allowed all the provinces of the Kingdom, including those in the south, to experience extraordinary economic and social dynamics,” he said. Any other attempt will only bring back this ideological dialectic between east and west, and continue having an absurd and distorting coverage of the reality,” underlined Diallo. The only perspective to get out of this confusion created by the AU is for this bloc to disappear as long as it is not in a position to resolve domestic issues and in relation to which it appeals to foreign powers”, he said, noting that “this Union is not credible and this opens the way to manipulation by corruption”.


Morocco News & Current Events

In 1912, the sultan of Morocco, Moulay Abd al-Hafid, permitted French protectorate status. Nationalism grew during World War II. Sultan Muhammed V was deposed by the French in 1953 and replaced by his uncle, but nationalist agitation forced his return in 1955. In 1956, France and Spain recognized the independence and sovereignty of Morocco. At his death on Feb. 26, 1961, Muhammed V's son succeeded him as King Hassan II. In the 1990s, King Hassan promulgated ?Hassanian democracy,? which allowed for significant political freedom while at the same time retaining ultimate power for the monarch. In Aug. 1999, King Hassan II died after 38 years on the throne and his son, Prince Sidi Muhammed, was crowned King Muhammed VI. Since then, Muhammed VI has pledged to make the political system more open, allow freedom of expression, and support economic reform. He has also advocated more rights for women, a position opposed by Islamic fundamentalists. The entrenched political elite and the military have also been leery of some reform proposals. With about 20% of the population living in dire poverty, economic expansion is a primary goal.

Morocco's Occupation of Western Sahara

Morocco's occupation of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) has been repeatedly criticized by the international community. In the 1970s, tens of thousands of Moroccans crossed the border into Spanish Sahara to back their government's contention that the northern part of the territory was historically part of Morocco. Spain, which had controlled the territory since 1912, withdrew in 1976, creating a power vacuum that was filled by Morocco in the north and Mauritania in the south. When Mauritania withdrew in Aug. 1979, Morocco overran the remainder of the territory. A rebel group, the Polisario Front, has fought against Morocco since 1976 for the independence of Western Sahara on behalf of the indigenous Saharawis. The Polisario and Morocco agreed in Sept. 1991 to a UN-negotiated cease-fire, which was contingent on a referendum regarding independence. For the past decade, however, Morocco has opposed the referendum. In 2002, King Muhammed VI reasserted that he ?will not renounce an inch of? Zapadna Sahara.

Arab Spring Protests Reach Morocco

On May 16, 2003, terrorists believed to be associated with al-Qaeda killed 33 people in several simultaneous attacks. Four bombs targeted Jewish, Spanish, and Belgian buildings in Casablanca. In the 2004 terrorist bombings in Madrid, Spain, numerous Moroccans were implicated.

A wave of suicide bombings struck Casablanca in March and April 2007. Authorities were not certain if the attacks were related

Early in 2011, tens of thousands of pro-democracy protesters gathered in various cities, calling for a shift to a constitutional monarchy in what was termed the February 20th movement. King Mohammed VI answered with promises of reform, which took the shape of a constitutional referendum in July. February 20th supporters called for a boycott of the referendum, calling the included reforms inadequate and taking offense at its intent to bolster the king's position as "supreme arbiter" of political and institutional life.


Sadržaj

The constitution grants the king extensive powers he is both the secular political leader and the "Commander of the Faithful" as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed. He presides over the Council of Ministers appoints the Prime Minister following legislative elections, and on recommendations from the latter, appoints the members of the government. While the constitution theoretically allows the king to terminate the tenure of any minister, and after consultation with the heads of the higher and lower Assemblies, to dissolve the Parliament, suspend the constitution, call for new elections, or rule by decree, the only time this happened was in 1965. The King is formally the chief of the military. Upon the death of his father Mohammed V, King Hassan II succeeded to the throne in 1961. He ruled Morocco for the next 38 years, until he died in 1999. His son, King Mohammed VI, assumed the throne in July 1999. [4]

Following the March 1998 elections, a coalition government headed by opposition socialist Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi's government is the first government drawn primarily from opposition parties in decades, and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialist, left-of-center, and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election. The current government is headed by Saadeddine Othmani.

Since the constitutional reform of 1996, the bicameral legislature consists of two chambers. The Assembly of Representatives of Morocco (Majlis al-Nuwab/Assemblée des Répresentants) has 325 members elected for a five-year term, 295 elected in multi-seat constituencies and 30 in national lists consisting only of women. The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members, elected for a nine-year term, elected by local councils (162 seats), professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats). The Parliament's powers, though limited, were expanded under the 1992 and 1996 constitutional revisions and include budgetary matters, approving bills, questioning ministers, and establishing ad hoc commissions of inquiry to investigate the government's actions. The lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a vote of no confidence.

On November 26, 2011 initial results of parliamentary elections were released. The moderate Islamist party, the Justice and Development Party (PJD), was projected to win the largest number of seats. However, the electoral rules were structured such that no political party could ever win more than 20 percent of the seats in the parliament. [5]

The full results of the previous election appear as follows: The ruling Justice and Development Party remained the largest party, winning 125 of the 395 seats in the House of Representatives (PJD), a gain of 18 seats compared to the 2011 elections. Abdelillah Benkirane was reappointed Prime Minister by the King on 10 October. [6] The Authenticity and Modernity Party (PAM) won 102 seats, and the rest of the seats were split among smaller parties.

The highest court in the judicial structure is the Supreme Court, whose judges are appointed by the King. The Youssoufi government continued to implement a reform program to develop greater judicial independence and impartiality. Morocco is divided into 12 administrative regions the regions are administered by the Walis and governors appointed by the King.


How a Pandemic Ended a Moroccan Empire

A mighty Moroccan dynasty was spreading its power across Africa when a pandemic triggered its downfall.

After the hectic, labyrinthine medina of Rabat disappeared behind me, another Moroccan walled city soon came into view. The sandy ramparts of Chellah stretch alongside a quiet hillside in the east of the busy Moroccan capital. They surround the remains of a grand necropolis—imperial tombs, a mosque, an Islamic college, and a stele tower.

This is one of the oldest sites of settlement in Morocco. The Phoenicians lived here for more than 2,000 years and were replaced not long after by the Romans, who transformed Chellah into a thriving city on the banks of the Bou Regreg River.

Yet it was a Moroccan dynasty, which arrived here many generations after the Romans, that left the most tangible imprint on Chellah. The giant walls before me were erected by the Marinid Dynasty to protect the huge necropolis it built here.

While they offered fine protection against human foes, these fortifications were powerless to halt one particular invader. An invisible assassin snuck into Chellah and Rabat in the mid-1300s and decimated this area. The Black Death had arrived. It would derail the Marinid Dynasty.

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Morocco had been afforded time to prepare its response to this bubonic plague pandemic. This infectious disease, which ended up killing more than 25 million people worldwide in just five years, had been rampant in Europe for many months before it leaped the Strait of Gibraltar and crashed into Morocco.

The eerie way the Black Death emerged and its horrifying effects on the human body make COVID-19 pale by comparison. It exploded across Europe due to a squadron of so-called “death ships.” In October of 1347, the southern Italian seaside city of Messina welcomed 12 vessels from Central Asia. Italian port workers boarded these ships to find a scene seemingly transplanted from a nightmare. Each boat was littered with disease-ridden corpses. The surviving sailors resembled zombies, their malnourished bodies laden with enormous, bloody boils.

There was no precedent for such a situation. The Italian authorities had no idea what they were dealing with. Although they did not allow the plague-infected bodies to be removed from the ships, which they sent back out to sea, the contact between the port workers and the diseased victims was sufficient for the Black Death to spread. It surged across Italy and then Europe, laying to waste town after town, city after city, nation after nation.

As this catastrophe grew, the Marinid Dynasty flourished. The sultan who drove its expansion is buried in Chellah. In searing midday heat, I wandered through the dusty remains of this necropolis until I found the large stone tomb of Abu al-Hasan. An earthquake in 1755 caused extensive damage to Chellah but al-Hasan’s mausoleum is still standing, albeit in a degraded state.

The Marinid Dynasty had ruled Morocco for more than 80 years when al-Hasan took command of it. Their reign began in 1248 when they seized the Moroccan city of Fez, which became the Marinid capital. This extraordinary city is now one of the most popular tourist destinations in Africa due, in part, to several magnificent buildings left behind by the Marinids. Amid the thousands of winding streets of Fez’s walled city is a Marinid creation which is one of the most striking Islamic structures on the planet.

Some buildings shock you with their size, others impress you with their modernity. But it was the sheer depth of creativity and craftsmanship that entranced me as I stood in the splendid courtyard of Fez’s 14th century Bou Inania Madrasas. No space within this Islamic college was left without decoration. Yet this intense weave of design works perfectly.

The Islamic religion was the foundation of the Marinid Dynasty and so, all across Morocco, they constructed Islamic colleges like this. Bou Inania’s intricate floor tiles complement its stunning wall mosaics, Islamic calligraphy inscriptions, delicate wood carvings, and masterful stucco work. The palette of colors on display ranges from cream through to brown, gold, mint, sky blue, aqua, and black.

Bou Inania was intended to be a grand symbol of the wealth and success of the Marinids. During the 1340s this dynasty had reached its zenith, spreading its influence more than 600 miles east of present-day Morocco to the nations of Algeria and Tunisia. At this point, Fez was one of the world’s largest cities and a revered center of intellectual and cultural brilliance.

Yet by the time Bou Inania was completed in 1356, the Marinids were in decline due, in part, to the invasion of the Black Death. In 1348, the year after the plague ambushed Europe, it took root in Morocco with devastating effect. It is estimated that, in the following four years, the Black Death killed up to half of the Moroccan people. Incredibly, it was nearly 200 years until this country’s population returned to its previous amount.

As the plague caused corpses to pile up across Morocco in 1348, its society descended into chaos. The Moroccan people panicked, and terrified, lost confidence in their sultan Abu al-Hasan. This same year, al-Hasan lost a battle in Tunisia and was forced to flee by sea. Soon after, as he attempted to return to Fez, his son Abu Inan betrayed him, declaring himself the new Marinid sultan.

Wounded and with little military support left, al-Hasan eventually surrendered to his son and then perished from an infection in 1351. Along with him was buried the glory era of the Marinid Dynasty. Although it continued to wield considerable power in Morocco for more than a century thereafter, this sultanate was slowly expiring. It had been placed on this path of decay by the Black Death. A once fearsome Moroccan empire diminished and eventually dissolved in the wake of the world’s worst-ever pandemic.


Gledaj video: NAŠA TV. DALEKA POVIJEST HERCEGOVINE (Srpanj 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Samuzil

    Super, jako smiješna poruka

  2. Zololkree

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  3. Kazilabar

    Smatram da počinite pogrešku. Mogu to dokazati. Pišite mi u PM, razgovarat ćemo.

  4. Hymen

    Iskreno govoreći, potpuno ste iskreni.

  5. Badr Al Din

    Rekao u povjerenju.

  6. Goltisho

    Želite li razmjenjivati ​​veze?



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