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461. bombarderska grupa

461. bombarderska grupa


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461. bombarderska grupa

Povijest - Knjige - Zrakoplovi - Vremenska linija - Zapovjednici - Glavne baze - Sastavne jedinice - Dodijeljeno

Povijest

461. bombarderska skupina bila je skupina B-24 koja je služila u sastavu Petnaestog zrakoplovstva u Italiji, sudjelujući u strateškoj kampanji bombardiranja i podržavajući borbe na jugu Francuske i južnoj Italiji.

Grupa je aktivirana 1. srpnja 1943. i preselila se u Italiju početkom 1944. Kopneni ešalon preselio se ravno u Italiju, ali je zračni ešalon putovao preko Sjeverne Afrike, gdje je stao na razdoblje obuke prije nego što se u veljači preselio u Italiju.

Grupa je ušla u borbu u travnju 1944. i većinu svog vremena provodila je u strateškim bombaškim operacijama, koje su se prostirale po većem dijelu južne i srednje Europe i Balkana. Grupa je za svoj udio u ovoj kampanji dobila dva citata istaknutih jedinica. Prvi se dogodio 13. travnja 1944. tijekom bitke protiv njemačke zrakoplovne industrije, a dobio je za napad na tvornicu sastavnih dijelova zrakoplova u Budimpešti. Drugi je dodijeljen za napad na naftna postrojenja u Ploestiju u srpnju 1944.

Grupa je također obavila brojne taktičke misije.

Tijekom napredovanja prema Rimu grupa je bila jedna od deset skupina B-24 koje su sudjelovale u napadu 17. svibnja 1944. na luke u Piombionu, San Stefanu i Porto Ferraio na Elbi u sklopu kampanje za sprječavanje snabdijevanja na njemačkom frontu crta.

U kolovozu 1944. grupa je podržala invaziju na južnu Francusku, a u rujnu je isporučila zalihe vojskama koje su napredovale na sjever u Francusku.

U travnju 1945. grupa je podržala savezničku ofenzivu na sjeveru Francuske.

U svibnju 1945. grupa je korištena za ispuštanje zaliha u logore za ratne zarobljenike u Austriji. U SAD se vratio u srpnju, a deaktiviran je 28. kolovoza 1945. godine.

Knjige

Zrakoplov

Srpnja 1943-: Konsolidirani osloboditelj B-24

Vremenska Crta

19. svibnja 1943Osnovana kao 461. bombarderska grupa (teška)
1. srpnja 1943Aktivirano
Siječanj-veljača 1944Do Mediterana
Travnja 1944Ušao u borbu s petnaestim zračnim snagama
Srpnja 1945Nama
28. kolovoza 1945Inaktivirano

Zapovjednici (s datumom imenovanja)

Unkn: 1. srpnja-12. kolovoza 1943
Potpukovnik Willis G Carter: 12. kolovoza 1943
Pukovnik Frederic E Glantzberg: c. 25. listopada 1943
Pukovnik Philip R Hawes: 22. rujna 1944
ColBrooks A Lawhon: 20. prosinca 1944
ColCraven C Rogers: 16. travnja 1945.-nepoznat

Glavne baze

Wendover Field, Utah: 1. srpnja 1943
Gowen Field, Idaho: 29. srpnja 1943
Kearns, Utah: 11. rujna 1943
WendoverField, Utah: 30. rujna 1943
Hammer Field, Kalifornija, 30. listopada 1943.-siječnja 1944. godine
Aerodrom Torretto, Italija: c. 20. veljače 1944.-srpnja 1945
SiouxFalls AAFM, SD: 22. srpnja-28. kolovoza 1945

Komponente

764. bombarderska eskadrila: 1943-45
765. bombarderska eskadrila: 1943-45
766. bombarderska eskadrila: 1943-45
767. bombarderska eskadrila: 1943-45

Dodijeljena

1944: 55. bombaško krilo; Petnaesto zrakoplovstvo
1944-45: 49. bombardersko krilo; Petnaesto zrakoplovstvo


766. bombarderska eskadrila

The 766. bombarderska eskadrila je neaktivna jedinica zračnih snaga Sjedinjenih Država. Eskadrila je prvi put aktivirana tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. Nakon obuke u Sjedinjenim Državama tijekom 1943., raspoređen je u Mediteransko kazalište operacija, gdje je sudjelovao u strateškoj kampanji bombardiranja Njemačke, te je za svoje akcije zaslužio dva ugledna naziva jedinice. Nakon Dana V-E, eskadrila se vratila u Sjedinjene Države, gdje je deaktivirana u kolovozu 1945. godine.

Eskadrila je ponovno aktivirana u zračnoj bazi Hill u Utahu pod Taktičkim zračnim zapovjedništvom (TAC) krajem 1953. godine, uskoro postajući jedna od prvih eskadrila mlaznih bombardera TAC -a. Preselila se u zrakoplovnu bazu Blytheville u Arkansasu 1956. godine i tamo se deaktivirala u siječnju 1958. godine, kada je Blytheville postao baza strateškog zrakoplovnog zapovjedništva (SAC).


Povijest [uredi | uredi izvor]

Osnovana je kao vrlo teška eskadrila bombi 1942. Misija je bila kao Operativna jedinica za obuku (OTU) pod II zapovjedništvom bombardera, obučavajući zamjenske pilote B-24 i posadu.

Preimenovan u operativnu eskadrilu B-29 Superfortress u kolovozu 1944. Obučen u sastavu Drugog zrakoplovstva raspoređen u zapadni Pacifik, raspoređen u nove Osme zračne snage. Stigao je na Okinavu, ali japanska kapitulacija dovela je do povlačenja Osmog zrakoplovstva, a eskadrila se nikada nije borila.

Letjeli su misijama demonstracije snage nad okupiranim Japanom i zrakoplovi su pomogli evakuirati ratne zarobljenike iz Japana i Kine na uzletišta na Filipinima. Osoblje je demobilizirano i zrakoplovi su prebačeni u skladište u Sjedinjenim Državama u svibnju 1946., a jedinica je 30. lipnja deaktivirana kao papirna jedinica na Okinawi.


461. bombaška skupina

Posada Kenneth Smith: Straga: Cpl Roland Morin, S/Sgt Urbain H Granger, Cpl Charles F Foss, Cpl Homer E Hymbaugh, Cpl Edwin A Burkhardt, Cpl Robert T Trumpy. Sprijeda: 2Lt Harry D Edmiston, 2Lt Ken B Smith, 2Lt Edward J Chojnowski, 2Lt Frank Hokr.

B-24J 42-99759 'Cherokee' #56 766BS, 461BG, 15AF.

B-24J 42-99759 'Cherokee' #56 766BS, 461BG, 15AF dolazi na kopno.

B-24J 42-99759 'Cherokee' #56 766BS, 461BG, 15AF na smetlištu nakon što su ga izvukli iz trbuha.

B-24J 42-99759 'Cherokee' #56 766BS, 461BG, 15AF.

B-24L-10-FO #44-49511 Šifra "Miss Lace": #15 461. bombaška skupina-764. bombaška eskadrila-15. AF oborena iznad Linza, Austrija 25. travnja 1945.

B-24J-1-FO #42-50613 "Jo" kod: #5 461. BG-764. BS-15. AF Prvobitno dodijeljen 34. BG-8. AF, ovaj zrakoplov je našao put do Italije nakon što je 34. BG prešao u B -17.

B-24H-15-CF #41-29362 "Lucky Seven" Šifra: #7 461. BG-764. BS-15. AF

Grupa je konstituirana u svibnju 1943. kao grupa za bombardiranje B-24 Liberator i aktivirana je 1. srpnja na Wendover Fieldu u Utahu. [1] Obučavao se pod zapovjedništvom II bombardera na nekoliko aerodroma u Utahu, Idahu i Kaliforniji, a elementi grupe su prošli obuku borbene simulacije u Školi primijenjene taktike vojnih zračnih snaga na Floridi.

461. razmješten u Sredozemno kazalište operacija (MTO) u veljači 1944., zračni ešalon letio je s B-24 preko južnoatlantske transportne rute, zaustavljajući se u Sjevernoj Africi prije nego što se pridružio zemaljskom ešalonu u Italiji. [1] Dodijeljen je 49. bombarderskom krilu petnaestog zrakoplovstva na aerodromu Torretto, Italija, krajem veljače.

Grupa je započela borbena djelovanja u travnju, uključujući se u operacije strateškog bombardiranja nacističke Njemačke i okupirane Europe. Bavila se uglavnom bombardiranjem komunikacija, industrija i drugih strateških ciljeva u Italiji, Francuskoj, Njemačkoj, Čehoslovačkoj, Mađarskoj, Austriji, Rumunjskoj, Jugoslaviji i Grčkoj. [1] Podržala je protuzračne operacije petnaestog AF-a bombardirajući neprijateljske zračne luke i zrakoplovne centre, dobivši Ditchuished Unit Unit Citation (DUC) za misiju 13. travnja 1944. godine, kada se skupina kroz neprijateljsku obranu borila za napad na tvornicu sastavnih dijelova aviona u Budimpešti. [ 1] 461. BG proveo je Naftnu kampanju u Drugom svjetskom ratu protiv Bruxa, Blechhammera, Moosbierbauma, Beča i Ploieștija primivši drugi DUC za bombardiranje Ploieștija u srpnju 1944. unatoč pahuljama, oblacima, dimu i borcima. Također je djelovao kao potpora kopnenim snagama i letio je na nekim zabranjenim misijama. [1]

Pogodila je topničke položaje u znak podrške invaziji na jug Francuske u kolovozu 1944., a u rujnu je odletjela u misije opskrbe Francuske. Skupina je pomagala savezničku ofenzivu u Italiji u travnju 1945. napadajući položaje oružja i koncentracije trupa. Nakon kapitulacije Njemačke, 461. je tijekom svibnja 1945. odustala od zaliha za logore ratnih zarobljenika u Austriji. [1] Tijekom svojih operacija na Sredozemlju, grupa je pretrpjela 108 zrakoplova izgubljenih u borbi, a pripisano je i uništenje 129 neprijateljskih zrakoplova. [2] Bacilo je preko 13.000 tona bombi u više od 46.000 sati borbenog letenja. [2]

Grupa je upozorena za premještaj u Pacifičko kazalište u lipnju 1945. i programirana je za obuku bombardera s vrlo teškim pogonom s B-29 Superfortresses. Postrojba se u srpnju vratila u Sjedinjene Države, a mnogi ljudi demobilizirani su po dolasku. Mali kadar formiran na vojnom zračnom polju Sioux Falls Army, Južna Dakota i postrojba čekao je novo osoblje i zrakoplove kada je japanska kapitulacija u kolovozu okončala Pacifički rat. Grupa je deaktivirana 18. kolovoza.


Sadržaj

461. krilo za upravljanje zrakom jedino je krilo zračnih snaga u aktivnoj službi koje upravlja radarskim sustavom za zajedničko nadziranje ciljeva E-8C (Joint STARS), naprednim sustavom za nadzor i upravljanje bitkom na zemlji. Zajednički STARS detektira, locira, klasificira, prati i cilja kretanja tla na bojnom polju, prenoseći informacije u stvarnom vremenu putem sigurnih podatkovnih veza sa zapovjednim mjestima američkih snaga.

  • Sjedište 461. krilo za kontrolu zraka
        -E-8C JSTARS-E-8C JSTARS
    • 461. eskadrila za održavanje (461 MXS)

    Taktička zračna komanda Uređivanje

    Potaknuti iskustvom u Korejskom ratu, Zračne snage odlučile su povećati svoju zračnu potporu i sposobnost zauzimanja zraka za potporu kopnenim snagama. Kao dio ovog povećanja, organizirala je 461. bombardersko krilo u zrakoplovnoj bazi Hill u Utahu, u prosincu 1953. Krilo je trebalo biti jedinica Martin B-57 Canberra, ali ti zrakoplovi nisu bili dostupni pa je u početku bio opremljen Douglas B-26 Invaders. [2] Službenički kadar eskadrile izvučen je iz 4. eskadrile Tow Target Squadron u zrakoplovnoj bazi George u Kaliforniji. Objekti na Hillu zahtijevali su razvoj i obuka za borbenu gotovost počela je tek u srpnju 1954. [3]

    Krilo je treniralo operacije lakih bombardera i sudjelovalo u vježbama, uključujući simulirane razmještaje. Dana 5. siječnja 1955. krilo je primilo svoj prvi B-57B [4], a do kraja godine bilo je potpuno opremljeno. Međutim, Hill-ovo parkiralište i hangar nisu bili dovoljni za B-57, pa čak i kad su počeli stizati, jedinica je očekivala prelazak u zrakoplovnu bazu Blytheville, Arkansas, koju je inženjerski zbor razvio za ponovno otvaranje 1955. [ 5] [6] Prva operativna eskadrila krila preselila se iz Hill -a u Blytheville u listopadu 1955. Njegova posljednja eskadrila bila je na mjestu 1. ožujka 1956., a pridružili su joj se stožer krila i jedinice za podršku u travnju. [2] [7]

    Pretvorba u Canberru donijela je brojne promjene. Novi zrakoplov bio je podložan nekoliko razdoblja prizemljenja (krilo je pretvorilo četiri velike nesreće prilikom preusmjeravanja u Canberru), te se suočilo s nedostatkom u broju raspoložive posade zrakoplova. Misija krila također je doživjela promjene, pri čemu je isporuka taktičkog nuklearnog oružja imala prioritet u odnosu na isporuku konvencionalnog naoružanja, iako je konvencionalno oružje ostalo kao sekundarna misija. [8] Operativne eskadrile i skupina krila deaktivirali su se u siječnju 1958. kao Taktičko zračno zapovjedništvo, pod proračunskim pritiskom, spremni za prijenos Blythevillea u Strateško zračno zapovjedništvo (SAC). Sjedište krila i elementi potpore deaktivirani su 1. travnja 1958. godine, pa je baza predana SAC -ovoj 4229. eskadrili zračne baze. [2] [7]

    Strateško zračno zapovjedništvo Uredi

    4128. strateško krilo Edit

    Dana 5. siječnja 1959., SAC je uspostavio 4128. strateško krilo u zrakoplovnoj bazi Amarillo u Teksasu i dodijelio ga 47. zrakoplovnoj diviziji [9] u sklopu plana SAC-a za širenje svojih teških bombardera Boeing B-52 Stratofortress na veći broj baza , čime je Sovjetskom Savezu bilo otežano nokautirati cijelu flotu iznenadnim prvim udarcem. Krilo se u početku sastojalo od tri eskadrile za održavanje i eskadrile za osiguranje posebnog naoružanja. 1. srpnja aktivirana je 58. eskadrila zrakoplovnih depoa za nadzor specijalnog naoružanja krila i krilo je prebačeno u 810. zrakoplovnu diviziju. [10]

    Krilo je postalo operativno 1. veljače 1960. kada je 718. bombaška eskadrila, sastavljena od 15 B-52, premještena u Amarillo iz zračne baze Ellsworth, Južna Dakota, gdje je bila jedna od tri eskadrile 28. bombaškog krila. [11] [12] Trećina zrakoplova krila održavana je u petnaestominutnoj pripravnosti, potpuno napunjena gorivom, naoružana i spremna za borbu. [13] Godine 1962. to je povećano na polovicu aviona krila. [14] 4128. (a kasnije i 461.) nastavilo je održavati obvezu upozorenja sve dok se ne deaktivira, osim u razdobljima kada su krilni zrakoplovi bili raspoređeni. 1. srpnja 1962. 4128. krilo preraspoređeno je u 22. zrakoplovnu diviziju. [15]

    Ubrzo nakon otkrivanja sovjetskih projektila na Kubi, 20. listopada 1962., 4128. krilo upućeno je da stavi u pripravnost dva dodatna bombardera. [16] Dva dana kasnije 1/8 SAC-ovih B-52 stavljeno je u zračnu uzbunu. [17] Dana 24. listopada SAC je otišao na DEFCON 2, stavljajući sve svoje borbene zrakoplove u stanje pripravnosti. [18] Dana 21. studenog napetosti iz kubanske raketne krize ublažile su se, a SAC se vratio u normalno stanje uzbune u zraku. [19] To znači da SAC -ova strateška krila nisu mogla imati stalnu povijest ili lozu [20]. SAC je tražio način da svoja strateška krila učini stalnim.

    461. bombardersko krilo Edit

    Godine 1962., kako bi se ovjekovječio niz mnogih trenutno neaktivnih bombardirajućih jedinica s slavnim zapisima o Drugom svjetskom ratu, Stožer SAC -a dobio je ovlaštenje od stožera USAF -a da ukine svoja strateška krila pod kontrolom Glavne komande (MAJCON) opremljena borbenim zrakoplovima i da aktivira zračni Jedinice kontrolirane silom (AFCON), od kojih je većina tada bila neaktivna, ali koje su mogle nositi podrijetlo i povijest. [20] Kao rezultat toga, 4128. zamijenjen je reaktiviranim 461. bombardersko krilo, Heavy, koja je preuzela svoju misiju, osoblje i opremu 1. veljače 1963. [2] [bilješka 2]

    Na isti način 764. eskadrila bombardiranja, jedna od povijesnih eskadrila bombi u Drugom svjetskom ratu, zamijenila je 718. eskadrilu bombardiranja. Pod organizacijom Dual Deputate, [bilješka 3], sve eskadrile letenja i održavanja bile su izravno dodijeljene krilu, tako da nije aktiviran nijedan element operativne skupine. 58. eskadrila za održavanje streljiva preraspoređena je u 461., dok su ostale eskadrile za održavanje i sigurnost 4128. zamijenjene onima s 461. numeričkom oznakom novog krila. Svaka od novih jedinica preuzela je osoblje, opremu i misiju svog prethodnika.

    U travnju 1963. krilo je dobilo mogućnost punjenja zrakom svojih bombardera kada je aktivirana 909. eskadrila za punjenje zrakom s tankerima KC-135. 909. je ostao s krilom do lipnja 1966., kada se preselio u ožujsku zrakoplovnu bazu u Kaliforniji i preraspoređen. [21] Krilo je treniralo s B-52, održavalo vještinu bombardiranja i sudjelovalo u brojnim inspekcijskim pregledima operativne spremnosti i vojnim vježbama. [2]

    U siječnju 1967. krilo je svoje zrakoplove i posadu rasporedilo u zrakoplovnu bazu Anderson, Guam, gdje su izvodili misije u jugoistočnoj Aziji u sklopu privremenog krila za bombardiranje koje je sudjelovalo u operaciji Lučno svjetlo. Zrakoplovi i osoblje krila vratili su se u srpnju u Amarillo, gdje su se vratili na nuklearnu uzbunu. [2] Međutim, "[i] u prosincu 1965., nekoliko mjeseci nakon što su prvi B-52B počeli napuštati operativni inventar, Robert S. McNamara, ministar obrane [najavio] je još jedan program postupnog ukidanja koji bi dodatno smanjio snagu bombardera SAC-a. U osnovi, ovaj program zahtijevao je da se sredinom 1971. povuku svi B-52C i nekoliko sljedećih modela B-52. " [22] Osim toga, u siječnju 1968. objavljeno je da će se Amarillo zatvoriti krajem godine. [23] Posljednji operativni B-52 krila prebačen je u drugu jedinicu 21. siječnja 1968., a krilo je deaktivirano 25. ožujka. [2]

    Uredi naredbu zračne borbe

    116. krilo za kontrolu zraka Nacionalne garde Zračne zračne garde Georgije djelovalo je kao složena jedinica, s tim da su i čuvari i redovnici dodijeljeni istoj jedinici. Međutim, ovaj se aranžman pokazao problematičnim u područjima kao što je nadležnost vojnog pravosuđa, te u drugim područjima. Zračne snage odlučile su 2011. godine stvoriti zasebne redovne i stražarske jedinice, a krilo je preimenovano u 461. krilo za upravljanje zrakom i aktivirano u listopadu 2011. [1] kada su redovite zračne snage preuzele pridruženu odgovornost za 116. zračno krilo za misiju JSTARS.


    Svjetskog rata [uredi | uredi izvor]

    Amblem 461. bombarderske grupe Drugog svjetskog rata

    461. bombarderska skupina B-24 Oslobodioci napadaju Muhldorfsko ranžirno mjesto Njemačka, 11. ožujka 1945.

    Grupa je konstituirana u svibnju 1943. kao grupa za bombardiranje B-24 Liberator i aktivirana je 1. srpnja na Wendover Fieldu u Utahu. Ώ ] Obučavao se pod zapovjedništvom II bombardera na nekoliko uzletišta u Utahu, Idahu i Kaliforniji, a elementi grupe su prošli obuku za simulaciju borbe u Školi primijenjene taktike Kopnenih zračnih snaga na Floridi.

    461. poslat u Sredozemno kazalište operacija (MTO) u veljači 1944., zračni ešalon letio je s B-24 preko južnoatlantske transportne rute, zaustavljajući se u Sjevernoj Africi prije nego što se pridružio kopnenom ešalonu u Italiji. Ώ ] Krajem veljače dodijeljen je 49. bombarderskom krilu petnaestog zrakoplovstva na aerodromu Torretto u Italiji.

    Grupa je započela borbena djelovanja u travnju, uključujući se u operacije strateškog bombardiranja nacističke Njemačke i okupirane Europe. Bavila se uglavnom bombardiranjem komunikacija, industrija i drugih strateških ciljeva u Italiji, Francuskoj, Njemačkoj, Čehoslovačkoj, Mađarskoj, Austriji, Rumunjskoj, Jugoslaviji i Grčkoj. Ώ ] Podržavao je protuzračne operacije petnaestog AF-a bombardirajući neprijateljske zračne luke i zrakoplovne centre, primajući Citch of Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) za misiju 13. travnja 1944. godine, kada se skupina kroz neprijateljsku obranu borila za napad na komponente zrakoplova pogona u Budimpešti. Ώ ] 461. BG je vodio naftnu kampanju u Drugom svjetskom ratu protiv Bruxa, Blechhammera, Moosbierbauma, Beča i Ploestija koji su primili drugi DUC za bombardiranje Ploestija u srpnju 1944. unatoč pahuljicama, oblacima, dimu i borcima. Također je djelovao u potpori kopnenim snagama i letio je u nekim zabranjenim misijama. Ώ ]

    Pogodila je topničke položaje u znak podrške invaziji na jug Francuske u kolovozu 1944., a u rujnu je odletjela u misije opskrbe Francuske. Skupina je pomagala savezničku ofenzivu u Italiji u travnju 1945. napadajući položaje oružja i koncentracije trupa. Nakon kapitulacije Njemačke, 461. je tijekom svibnja 1945. prekinula isporuku u logore za ratne zarobljenike u Austriji. Ώ ] Tijekom svojih operacija na Sredozemlju, grupa je pretrpjela 108 zrakoplova izgubljenih u borbi, a pripisano je i uništenje 129 neprijateljskih zrakoplova. ΐ ] Bacilo je preko 13.000 tona bombi u preko 46.000 sati borbenog leta. ΐ ]

    Grupa je upozorena za premještaj u Pacifičko kazalište u lipnju 1945. i programirana je za obuku bombardera s vrlo teškim pogonom s B-29 Superfortresses. Postrojba se u srpnju vratila u Sjedinjene Države, a mnogi ljudi demobilizirani su po dolasku. Mali kadar formiran na vojnom zračnom polju Sioux Falls Army, Južna Dakota i postrojba čekao je novo osoblje i zrakoplove kada je japanska kapitulacija u kolovozu okončala Pacifički rat. Grupa je deaktivirana 18. kolovoza.

    Taktičko zračno zapovjedništvo [uredi | uredi izvor]

    461. bombaško krilo Martin B-57B-MA 53-3934, 1956. godine

    Jedinica je ponovno aktivirana kao 461. bombarderska grupa, Lagana i dodijeljena 461. bombarderskom krilu. U početku je bio opremljen lakim bombarderima iz doba Drugog svjetskog rata B-26B Invader. Ώ ] Zadatak zrakoplova bio je privremen sve dok jedinica nije primila mlazni Martin B-57 Canberras Α ] i preselila se u stalnu bazu u Blytheville AFB, Arkansas. Ώ ] Nakon tri godine službe s B-57, grupa je inaktivirana početkom 1958. jer je TAC reorganiziran u sustavu dvostrukih zamjenika, a njegove eskadrile prebačene su izravno na krilo.


    461. bombarderska skupina - Povijest

    461. bombaška skupina (H)

    Kolovoza 1944

    2. kolovoza 1944

    Cilj: Željeznički most Avignon, Francuska

    Kao što je to bio slučaj u prethodnim mjesecima, vrhunsko bombardiranje označilo je prvu misiju u novom mjesecu. Potpukovnik Knapp vodio je četverostruku formaciju protiv željezničkog mosta preko rijeke Durance južno od Avignona. Poručnik King postao je prvi bombarder u ovoj skupini koji je zaista snažno pogodio most kada je 73,1 posto, gotovo sve bombe tri leta, presjeklo željeznički most na dva različita mjesta blizu južnog kraja.

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    Cilj: tvornica zrakoplova Zahnradfabrik, Friedrichshafen, Njemačka

    Primarni cilj ove misije bio je Raderach Chemical Works u Friedrichshafenu u Njemačkoj. Zbog pokrivenosti oblaka od devet desetina u ciljnom području, Grupa je bila prisiljena bombardirati metodom pathfinder. Budući da nije mogao na zadovoljavajući način pokupiti primarni cilj na svojim instrumentima, poručnik Marangelo odabrao je prvi alternativni cilj koji je bila tvornica zrakoplova Zahnradfabrik u Friedrichshafenu. Meta je pogođena, ali mnoge su bombe pale u vodu. 2. poručnik Robert E. Schweisberger i njegova posada postali su prvi od brojnog novog letačkog osoblja koje se nije uspjelo vratiti s misije u kolovozu.

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    Cilj: Miramas Marshalling Yard, Francuska

    Za ovu misiju strategija Petnaestog zrakoplovstva, koja u to vrijeme nije otkrivena osoblju Grupe, nastavila je predviđati invaziju na jug Francuske. Meta je bilo veliko ranžirno stajalište u relativno malom gradu Miramas u Francuskoj. Uz izvrsne vremenske uvjete, bez protivljenja boraca i nema mnogo zastoja u cilju, bojnik Goree i poručnik Cran izvršili su izvrsnu misiju s rezultatom od 52,7 posto. Ovo je bila prva formacija pet kutija koja je letjela tijekom mjeseca.

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    Cilj: Rafinerija nafte Blechhammer South, Njemačka

    Misija 7. kolovoza bila je južno postrojenje Rafinerije sintetičkog ulja u Blechhammeru u Njemačkoj. Iako je vrijeme bilo CAVU iznad cilja, bilo je potrebno bombardirati instrumentima zbog vrlo učinkovite dimne zavese koju je postavio neprijatelj. Snimljene su fotografije udara bombe, ali nemoguće je zacrtati pokrivenost. Nijedan lovac nije viđen niti je naišao, ali dvanaest od devetnaest bombardera nad metom je oklopljeno. Zrakoplov kojim je upravljao drugi poručnik Robert E. Sterrett posljednji je put viđen u ciljnom području s dva pernata motora. On i njegova posada postali su druga nova posada koja je izgubljena tijekom mjeseca.

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    Cilj: Rafinerija nafte Almasfuzito, Mađarska

    Veteranski tim potpukovnika Knappa, kapetana Stronga, potpukovnika Kinga, potpukovnika Colesa i poručnika Sullivana prošao je sa svojom drugom superiornom misijom u mjesecu kada su postigli 62 posto u rafineriji nafte u mađarskom Almasfuzitu. Uvjeti za napad bili su idealni - vrijeme u CAVU -u, bez lovaca i bez prevelikog naleta. Iako kapetan Strong i poručnik Sullivan to tada nisu znali, ova je misija označila kraj njihove službene dužnosti s Petnaestim zračnim snagama. To je učinilo devetnaestu misiju koju su oni i poručnik King izveli u vodećem avionu formacije zračnih snaga, krila, grupa ili drugog odjeljenja.

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    Cilj: Rafinerija nafte Ploesti Xenia, Rumunjska

    Vratimo se opet na oružje na poljima kod stare poznate mete, Rafinerije ulja Xenia, Ploesti. Ponovno natrag do dimnih zavjesa, visokih visokih crnih oblaka iz goruće nafte i do bombardiranja tragača. Rezultati: bez bodova: fotografije koje ne pokazuju ništa osim dimljenja trinaest aviona s rupama u njima. Članovi posade koji su se navikli na rezultate poput onih u Blechhammeru i na Ploestiju često su se pitali koliko ili koliko male štete doista nanose tim ciljevima.

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    Cilj: Genova položaji oružja, Italija

    Tjednima su se članovi grupe koja je posjetila Rim vraćali s glasinama o novoj invaziji na europski kontinent. Kad je Grupa 12. kolovoza iznenada odbačena od svojih naftnih ciljeva kako bi letjela u taktičkoj misiji protiv položaja obalnih topova južno od Genove u Italiji, mnogi su vjerovali da je došlo vrijeme za ispunjenje ovih glasina. Vrijeme za ovu misiju bilo je idealno, nije bilo neprijateljskih lovaca, a ni velike količine oklijevanja. Međutim, cilj kojem se prišlo kopnom bilo je najteže identificirati. Samo 6,4 posto bombi bačeno je na metu. Zrakoplov kojim je upravljao zrakoplov F/O James H. Cain raznio je metu, a nekoliko komada iz uništenog aviona vraćeno je u bazu smještenu u krilima i trupovima drugih aviona u formaciji. Vjeruje se da je zrakoplov pretrpio izravan udarac u osigurač bombe.

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    Cilj: Genova položaji oružja, Italija

    Budući da 12. u mjesecu nije uspjela izbaciti svoju metu, Grupa je 13. pokušala ponovno s još lošijim rezultatima. Činilo se nemogućim da Grupa identificira dodijeljene položaje oružja.

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    Cilj: Genova položaji oružja u blizini Frejusa, Francuska

    Kad je Grupi dodijeljena treća uzastopna taktička misija protiv položaja obalnih topova, počelo se nagađati kada će invazija započeti i hoće li ona biti usmjerena na područje Genove u Italiji ili na područje Marseillea u Francuskoj. Potpukovnik Knapp, koji je letio ovom misijom s novom posadom vođe leta, predao je svoju treću uzastopnu nadređenu misiju u mjesecu kada je 64,5 posto bombi bačeno unutar 1000 stopa od dodijeljenih položaja obalnog oružja na plaži u blizini Frejusa u Francuskoj. Uvjeti za ovu misiju bili su idealni.

    Nekoliko tjedana nakon ove misije, član ove grupe koji je posjetio mjesto ove mete vratio se iz Francuske s informacijom da tamo gdje su se nekada nalazila obalna oružja nema ništa osim najvećeg kratera koji je ikada vidio.

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    15. kolovoza 1944

    Cilj: plaža Frejus, Francuska

    Tijekom popodneva 14., "informacije o kvotaciji" na velikom naletu sišle su kroz kanale. & quotH & quot Sat & quotD & quot Dana trebao je biti zora ujutro 15. kolovoza. Invazija je trebala biti usmjerena na južnu obalu Francuske. Misije Petnaestog zrakoplovstva u potpori invazije bile su četiri: (1) Izazivati ​​maksimalno uništenje neprijateljske obale i obrane plaža unutar područja napada (2) Izolirati bojište uništavanjem preostalih željezničkih i cestovnih mostova preko rijeku Rhone do njenog spoja s rijekom Iser, kao i one preko rijeka Iser i Durance (3) Za blokiranje defilea i željezničkih pruga koje prolaze kroz Alpe od rijeke Iser prema jugu i (4) Ispuštanje propagandnih letaka iz vode &# 39s do 30 milja u unutrašnjosti.

    Terenski redoslijed misije otkrio je da su mnoge grupe trebale pogoditi svoje mete u zoru. To je bilo objašnjenje zašto su zrakoplovi skupina 304. krila tjednima ometali san 461. grupe svojim stalnim noćnim polijetanjima, letenjem formacija i slijetanjima. Ciljano vrijeme dodijeljeno 461 st. Bilo je 1210 o ' sati. Meta je bio dio plaže ispred grada Frejusa i samo lijevo od koncentracije prijateljskih vojnika koji su trebali biti na obali.

    Čim je pukovnik Glantzberg vidio terenski nalog i anekse koji su ga pratili, brzo je donio svoje odluke. Grupa bi napala svoju metu s pet kutija raspoređenih ulijevo. Pukovnik bi vodio prvu ložu, a zapovjednik eskadrile vodio bi po jednu od svake druge četiri lože. Letjeli bi svi operativni časnici grupe i eskadrile, navigatori i bombarderi. Potpukovnik Hawes, zamjenik zapovjednika grupe, bio bi jedini leteći časnik grupe ili eskadrile koji ne bi letio. Kapetan John Specht, vjerojatno najistaknutiji originalni vođa letenja u skupini, bio bi glavni pilot Marian Pruitt, za kojeg se dugo vjerovalo da mu nema ravnih u petnaestim zračnim snagama, bio bi vodeći navigator 1. poručnik Jack H. King , prije Bombardier izvanredne posade Captain Strong -a, a trenutno najtopliji Bombardier u Grupi, kao i djelujući Bombardier grupe, bio bi vodeći bombarder 1. poručnik John W. Coles, navigator eskadrile i veteran mnogih misija na kojim je upravljao pilotažom s nosne kupole vodećeg zrakoplova, bio bi Pilotage Navigator 1. poručnik Leonard C. Gizelba, primadona Mickeyjevih operatora, letjela bi u avionu Lead Pathfinder.

    Odluka zapovjednika da dopusti svim časnicima letećeg stožera osim jednog da sudjeluju u ovoj misiji bio je izvanredan primjer metoda koje je neprestano koristio kako bi svaki zaslužni časnik i čovjek osjetio da je važna osoba u ovoj skupini. U poslijepodnevnim satima održan je poseban brifing kojem su prisustvovali svi časnici letačkog osoblja, kao i sve posade voditelja leta koje su trebale sudjelovati u misiji.

    Uvjeti za misiju nisu mogli biti bolji. U potpunoj odsutnosti neprijateljskih lovaca i flakova, s CAVU vremenom, sa svim letovima u formaciji, s mnogo prijateljskih plovila u vodi blizu cilja i s mnogo prijateljskih vojnika na tlu u blizini cilja, Grupa je izvršila svoj posao prskajući dodijeljeni dio slijetačke plaže bombama opće namjene od 100 kilograma. Na gornjoj polici svakog aviona bile su dvije bombe koje su nosile propagandne letke upućene neprijateljskom osoblju. Sve posade vratile su se u bazu bez incidenata.

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    Cilj: Rafinerija nafte Ploesti Romana Americana, Rumunjska

    S uspješnom invazijom južne Francuske sa Sredozemlja, petnaesto zrakoplovstvo zamahnulo je prema ciljevima prema izvorima njemačke nafte. Meta dodijeljena 461. skupini bila je Rafinerija nafte Romana Americana u Ploestiju, Rumunjska. Taj je cilj bio najveći i najvažniji od svih vitalnih naftnih postrojenja u Ploestiju. To je bio cilj koji Grupa nije uspjela postići 22. srpnja kada je formacija zaustavljena neuspješno.

    Ova je grupa bila sedma misija koju je ova skupina odvezla u Ploesti. Iako u to vrijeme nitko to nije znao, ovo je bilo predodređeno da ovo bude posljednja misija koju će ova skupina ispuniti protiv ovog prvog prioritetnog cilja koji su svi Ujedinjeni narodi odavno prepoznali kao jedno od najvažnijih i dobro branjenih ciljnih područja koja posjeduju od strane neprijatelja. Dana 30. kolovoza 1944. ruska vojska zauzela je ono što je ostalo od opskrbe naftom i industrije Ploesti.

    Unatoč činjenici da je bilo potrebno puno objašnjavanja od strane nekih od dvanaest posada koji su se rano vratili s ove misije, misija je na mnogo načina bila najuspješnija koju je ova skupina izvela protiv mete Ploesti. 19 zrakoplova koji su prešli metu bacili su 45,6 posto od svojih 146 bombi RDX od 150 kilograma u krugu od 100 stopa od kratkog cilja. Brojni pogoci postignuti su u tenkovskoj farmi na sjeverozapadnom uglu rafinerije. Jedan niz bombi pao je na središte rafinerije s četiri izravna pogodaka na spremnike u tom području što je rezultiralo velikim požarima i destilacijskim jedinicama, kotlovnicom , a pogođene su i neke od upravnih zgrada.

    Nije nađen nijedan borac. With CAVU weather at the target, the master anti-aircraft gunners, who had been getting plenty of practice all summer, were up to par with their effort. As a result, fourteen of the nineteen planes over the target were hit and the one flown by 2 nd Lt. Thomas C. Moore failed to return from this mission.

    Most of the twelve planes which returned early from the mission were those which had been flying in the rear positions of the various flights. When Lt. Colonel Hawes was compelled by mechanical failure to abandon the lead position in the formation, the lead was taken over by the Deputy Leader, Captain Ryder. This was the first mission that Captain Ryder had led. Due to his inexperience plus the fact that his plane was not accurately calibrated, he maintained too high an air speed en route to the target. As a result, the "tail end Charlie" planes were unable to climb and maintain position in the formation.

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    Target: Alibunar Airdrome, Yugoslavia

    The mission of 18 August was the first of four missions destined to be flown against German held airdromes during the last half of August. The target was the airdrome at Alibunar, Yugoslavia. Most of the fragmentation bombs dropped on this mission covered a wide area across the north end of the airdrome, while others fell in the southwest area and continued northwest to the center of the landing ground. Nine enemy aircraft received direct hits and three others received near misses. A total of five enemy aircraft were counted from the photographs taken by this Group. With good weather and neither enemy planes nor anti-aircraft defenses, all planes in the Group formation returned safely to the base without damage or casualties.

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    Target: Szolnok Airdrome, Hungary

    On the frag mission of 20 August against the airdrome at Szolnok, Hungary, Lt. Colonel Knapp turned in his fourth consecutive highly successful mission of the month as Group leader. The bomb pattern started at the center of the south dispersal area and continued southeast across the target with an even pattern of strikes. Seven enemy aircraft received direct hits and near misses were scored on three others. The weather was good except for haze the flak was light, inaccurate, and heavy and there was no enemy fighter opposition. Only one plane was damaged. All returned safely from the mission.

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    Target: Lobau Underground Oil Storage, Vienna, Austria

    Still hammering away at vital enemy installations. This time the target was the underground oil installations at the Lobau Refinery near Vienna, Austria. Flying second in the Wing Formation, the Group dropped its 1000 pound general purpose bombs through the smoke from fires started by the lead group, the 451 st . Because of this smoke it was impossible to observe the full extent of the damage done by this Group. A close concentration of hits, however, fell through the center of the target and on underground storage facilities.

    A long running fight was had with thirty-four enemy fighters, eleven of which were destroyed. Sixteen of the twenty-three bombers over the target were damaged by the exceptionally intense, accurate, and heavy flak which the enemy was able to aim under CAVU conditions. The plane piloted by 2 nd Lt. Robert G. Swinehart, one of the more experienced pilots in the Group, suffered a bad fuel leak and was lost over Yugoslavia returning to base.

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    Target: Markersdorf Airdrome, St. Polten, Austria

    The third frag job of the month against enemy airdromes. The target was the Markersdorf Airdrome at St. Polen, Austria. The first string of frags started at the Southwest corner of the airdrome and continued northeast to the service apron, the second string fell across the western half of the airdrome. Seven enemy aircraft were hit and three others received near misses. Forty-two enemy aircraft parked on the airdrome can be counted in the Group pictures.

    Again enemy fighter opposition was encountered. Upward of seventy ME-109s and FW-190s were seen between Lake Balaton and the target. As a result of repeated attacks, five of these were destroyed, six probably destroyed, and one damaged. The cover provided this Group by the P-51s on this mission was exceptionally good. There was no flak at the target. The plane piloted by 2 nd Lt. Gordon W Rosecrans, Jr. was set on fire by enemy fighters. More than half the crew members were seen to bail out from the plane.

    For the second time since the Group had been operating in the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, a strange airplane joined the bomber formation on this mission. At 46 deg., 25' North and 15 deg., 52' East a black B-17 with white vertical stabilizer and elevators joined the formation and flew a wing position for approximately thirty minutes. At the end of that time it fired upon the formation and then turned away when fire was returned.

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    Target: Ferrara Railroad Bridge, Italy

    For its 89 th mission the Group returned to the target area of its first really great mission. Not since good Friday, 7 April 1944, had the Group been back to Ferrara, Italy. The target for the mission of 24 August 1944 was a railroad bridge north of the city. The bridge was missed but considerable damage was done in the immediate target area. Some of the bombs fell in a small industrial area south of the bridge, others started large fires, probably in a power house in the industrial area southwest of the bridge, and still others hit the south elevated railroad bridge cutting the tracks in several places.

    Ferrara flak lived up to its highly respected reputation. Nineteen of the twenty-five aircraft over the target were hit by flak, one man was injured, and 2 nd Lt. John R. Wren was compelled to bail his crew out a few miles North of the bomb line at Rimini.

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    Target: Bucharest, Otopeni Airdrome, Roumania

    By the 26 th of August, Roumania had requested an armistice with Russia and Roumanian soldiers were fighting the Germans in the city of Bucharest. North of that city at the Otopeni Airdrome, the Germans were using the landing strips for two purposes: (1) As a place to set down large transports bringing in reinforcements (2) As a place from which to launch aerial attacks against the city of Bucharest. The mission of the 461 st Bombardment Group for the day was that of post holing the two landing strips on the Otopeni Airdrome with 500 pound general purpose bombs.

    First reports of the results of this mission clearly indicated that Lt. Colonel Knapp had failed miserably in his effort to lead five consecutive exceptionally successful missions during the month of August. With CAVU weather and in the absence of both anti-aircraft and enemy fighter opposition only 4.6 percent of the bombs were dropped on the briefed aiming point. Photographs of the mission reveal that two enemy airplanes, one of which was a six engine transport, were destroyed on the ground, but most of the bombs fell across barracks, the administration buildings, and the main highway leading from the airdrome to Ploesti. Only two airplanes were damaged on this mission, but still another crew was lost when 2 nd Lt. Howard G. Wilson, who was flying one of the two damaged planes, was forced to bail his crew out over Yugoslavia when returning from the mission.

    A few days after this mission, the city of Bucharest was completely cleared of German resistance by the Roumanians and the Russians. Shortly thereafter approximately 1,100 United Nations' Flying Officers and men were released from prisons in Bucharest and returned to the Headquarters of the Fifteenth Air Force. Among these were part or all of the personnel of four different crews lost by the 461 st over Roumania. When these individuals returned to the Group, they enthusiastically reported that our Group had broken the backbone of German resistance in Bucharest on the 26 th of August. The bombs from our planes had practically missed their target, but they had destroyed the headquarters, the transportation equipment, the heavy guns, and a great deal of the personnel and munitions concentrated by the enemy in the area covered by our bombs.

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    Target: Venzone Viaduct, Italy

    On the 27 th of the month, Lt. Colonel Applegate, in leading a mission against the Venzone Viaduct, Italy, proved that Lt. Colonel Knapp's accomplishment leading a formation in really hitting a bridge at Avignon, France, on the first mission of the month was not a fluke. The score on the Avignon Bridge had been 73.1 percent the score on the Venzone Viaduct was 73.9 percent.

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    Target: Szolnok/Szajol Railroad Bridge, Hungary

    On the 28 th of August, Colonel Glantzberg took his turn at leading the Group on an excellent mission against a railroad bridge. The target was the Szajol Railroad bridge at Szalnok, Hungary. The Group Bombardier, now Captain King, continued to demonstrate his ability to knock down bridges. The score on this mission was 55.1 percent.

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    Target: Szeged Marshalling Yard, Hungary

    Group Operations Officer Donovan, leading the Group formation for the first time after his promotion to Major, finished off the twentieth and last mission for the month in an excellent manner when 49.5 percent of the bombs were dropped within the prescribed area on the Marshalling Yards at Szeged, Hungary. After the formation had begun its bomb run a malfunction was discovered in the bombsight of the lead airplane. This required the Group to make a 360 degree circle during which the lead was taken over by the Deputy Lead airplane. Six of the planes in the formation did not circle the target but left the formation to bomb the First Alternate Target, the Marshalling Yard at Subotica, Yugoslavia.


    461st Bombardment Group - History

    461st Bombardment Group (H)

    November 1944

    Mission #123

    1 November 1944

    Target: Graz Marshalling Yards, Austria

    The primary target for the first mission in November was the South Ordnance Depot at Vienna, Austria. The thick layers of clouds which had been encountered over Italy and over the Adriatic practically dissipated over Yugoslavia. Atmospheric conditions were such over the alps, however, that extreme haze and vapor trails reduced visibility to one mile. Under these conditions the third alternate, the Marshalling Yard at Graz, Austria, was selected for the attack. Bombing was done by the pathfinder method. On the bomb run the "Mickey Set" was hit by flak and rendered practically useless. The photographs, which are not very clear because of haze and clouds reveal that the target was not hit. Seven of the airplanes of the Group became separated from the formation and bombed the Marshalling Yard at Liebing, Austria, with unobserved results. Returning crews brought with them a healthy respect for the flak at Graz which had holed nine of the airplanes over the target.

    Mission #124

    Target: Herman Goering Benzol Plant, Linz, Austria

    Mission #124

    Target: Klagenfurt Aircraft Factory, Austria

    A "double header" mission was planned for 3 November, but because of the weather the large force was stood down. Mission No. 124, flown that day, was the first of the individual airplane missions to be flown by this Group. Beginning at 1122 hours four planes took off at one minute intervals to bomb the aircraft factory at Klagenfurt, Austria. The airplane commanders on each of the planes were Lt. Colonel Hawes, Major Goree, Captain Mixson, and Captain Roberts. The weather at the target was ten-tenths undercast as briefed. Each plane dropped its bombs by the pathfinder method and returned safely to base. The planes ran into clear icing conditions on this mission. Had the plane in which Captain Mixson was riding as co-pilot been flown by a pilot and co-pilot not accustomed to flying in icing conditions, it probably would have spun in over the Adriatic. As it was, Captain Mixson's full year of experiences while on anti-submarine patrol stood him in good stead.

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    Mission #125

    Target: Augsburg Marshalling Yard, Germany

    On 4 November Major Word led a large formation through spotty weather to attack a marshalling yard at Augsburg, Germany. The weather on take-off and over Yugoslavia was bad, but over the Alps it was CAVU. As the formation approached the target area, unfortunately, it was discovered that the target was completely obscured by a ten-tenths cloud coverage. Bombs were dropped by pathfinder method with unobserved results.

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    Mission #126

    Target: Florisdorf Oil Refinery, Vienna, Austria

    Another "double header" was flown on 5 November. One formation, led by Major Donovan, attacked the Florisdorf Oil Refinery at Vienna, Austria. Again the bombing was done by the pathfinder method and again the results were unobserved. Of the twenty-five single engine enemy fighters which made one pass at the formation between Lake Balaton and the target, one was destroyed, one probably destroyed, and four damaged. Damage due to flak over the target was extremely light for the Vienna area.

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    Mission #127

    Target: Ali Pasin Most Marshalling Yard near Sarajevo,Yugoslavia

    The second half of the "double header" of 5 November provided Lt. Colonel Hardy with his first opportunity to lead a Group formation on a combat mission. The target was the Ali Pasin Most Marshalling Yard near Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Clearing weather over the Adriatic gave the crew members hopes of being able to see their target when they arrived in Yugoslavia. They felt confident of being able to do this when they reached landfall across the Adriatic. As they approached the target, however, a large cloud formation appeared over the target. Lt. Colonel Hardy did a 360 degree turn and led his small formation around the edges of the cloud cover but was unable to find an opening through which to attack the target.

    Mission #128

    Target: Power Sub Stations, Bolzano, Italy

    Another "double header" mission on 6 November. Captain Mixson led the smaller formation against the power sub stations at Bolzano, Italy. Despite the haze the extremely intense, heavy flak, the score of this mission was 49 percent. Eight of the thirteen planes over the target were hit by flak which killed two individuals and wounded a third. The dead, Sergeant Don R. Trail and Second Lieutenant Doc W. Roberts, were in two different airplanes.

    Mission #129

    Target: South Ordnance Depot, Vienna, Austria

    The larger of the two formations which flew a mission on 6 November had as its primary target, the Vosendorf Oil Refinery at Vienna, Austria. Bombing through a solid undercast the mickey operators selected the South Ordnance depot as the target for the attack. Five enemy airplanes were seen in the Lake Balaton area but there were no encounters. Flak at the target was extremely rough for a cloudy day. The formation was led by Major Goree who completed his tour of duty on this mission. Of the four officers who were the Squadron Commanders on 2 April 1944 when the Group flew its first combat mission Major Goree was the only one to complete a tour of duty with this Group. He was also the first squadron commander in the Group ever to complete a tour of duty. (Lt. Colonel Knapp, Lt. Colonel Applegate, and Major Dooley were all transferred to the 451 st Group before completing their tour of duty.)

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    Mission #130

    Target: Ali Pasin Most Marshalling Yard near Sarajevo, Yugoslavia

    The target for Mission 130 of 7 November was the Ali Pasin Most Marshalling Yard near Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. This target was of high priority at the time it was attacked because of the use the Germans were making of it in their withdrawal from Greece. Because of the military importance of the target and because of the fact the target was bombed visually, it was a great disappointment to the Group to almost completely miss it. The intense, accurate, and heavy flak defending this target hit sixteen of the twenty-four planes in the formation and wounded one man.

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    HEADQUARTERS FORTY NINTH BOMB WING

    SUBJECT: Attack on Sarajevo of 7 November 1944

    S-2, 451 st Bomb Group

    S-2, 461 st Bomb Group

    S-2, 484 th Bomb Group

    "For your information: Following is a report received from ground sources on results of the attack on Sarajevo of 7 November:

    "Sarajevo arms repair work shops, gas works, engine house, railway works shop destroyed or severely damaged. At Ali Pasin Most Railway repair shop, six locomotives destroyed and station installations heavily damaged. On road between Derventa and Doboj, three locomotives and one armored train destroyed. Casualties at Sarajevo high with the First Ustachi Regimented wiped out."

    Mission #131

    Target: Herman Goering Benzol Plant, Linz, Austria

    Mission #131

    Target: Sillien Highway Bridge, Austria

    Another "double header" was assigned for 11 November but only one of the formations got off. This one was led by Major Word, who was pressing to complete his tour of duty. The primary target was the Benzol plant at Linz, Austria. Bad weather made it impossible to reach the target. Major Word swung the formation around and began looking for a target of opportunity to bomb visually. The only target which could be found was a highway bridge at Sillien, Austria, which was bombed through an eight-tenths undercast with unobserved results.

    Mission #132

    Target: Isarco/Albes Railroad Bridge, Italy

    Mission #132

    Target: Herman Goering Benzol Plant, Linz, Austria

    Mission #132

    Target: Osterriechische Automobifabrics, Vienna, Austria

    Target: Southeast Goods Depot, Vienna, Austria

    Target: Innsbruck Main Marshalling Yard, Austria

    Mission No. 132 on 15 November was flown by four individual airplanes against the main Marshalling Yard at Innsbruck, Austria. The loss of the plane flown by Lieutenant Beatty on this mission was both the first plane lost to combat during the month and also the first plane ever to be lost by the Group on this type of mission. Nothing was heard or seen of this plane after it took off, but it is believed to have iced up.

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    Mission #133

    Target: West Marshalling Yards, Munich, Germany

    Mission No. 133 which was led by Lt. Colonel Lawhon on 16 November with the West Marshalling Yard at Munich as the primary target served to demonstrate again that an almost unlimited number of variables and one seemingly unimportant little mistake can completely ruin a mission for a whole formation. After the planes were on their bomb run the nose turret navigator in the lead plane, while moving around in his heavy flying clothes, accidentally hit a switch with his shoulder and released the bombs. All the other bombardiers in the formation toggled their bombs, as briefed, on the lead plane. Knowing that all the bombs in the formation were away, Lt. Colonel Lawhon pulled the formation off the bomb run to avoid unnecessarily going over the heavy flak at Munich.

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    Mission #134

    Target: Florisdorf Oil Refinery, Vienna, Austria

    Another "double header" on 17 November Major Word became the second Squadron Commander in the Group to complete a tour of duty by leading the smaller of the two formations of the day in attacking the Florisdorf Oil Refinery at Vienna. The ten-tenths undercast necessitated instrument bombing with unobserved results and probably also reduced the accuracy of the enemy flak over the target.

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    Mission #135

    Target: Blechhammer South Synthetic Oil Refinery, Germany

    The other half of the "double header" of November 17 th saw the larger of the two formations of the day led by Lt. Colonel Lawhon. The solid undercast which had been experienced earlier in the day by the formation over Vienna also prevailed over the South Synthetic Oil Refinery at Blechhammer, Germany. More pathfinder bombing with unobserved results.

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    Mission #136

    Target: Villafranca Airdromes, Italy

    Good weather and good bombing marked the 136 th mission of the Group which was a frag job against the Villafranca Airdrome in Italy. A large formation of forty planes was led by Major Rider. Three well concentrated patterns hit at least twelve enemy airplanes on the ground and started several small fires in revetments.

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    Target: Vosendorf Oil Refinery, Vienna, Austria

    On 19 November Captain Roberts, the 766 th Operations Officer, led the Group formation in attacking the Vosendorf Oil Refinery at Vienna, Austria. This was the first time a formation of the 461st Group had ever been led by a squadron operations officer. Despite the nine-tenth undercast which necessitated pathfinder bombing the flak was extremely accurate. Eight of the twenty-six planes over the target were hard hit by flak, one was lost, one man was killed, and another was wounded. The plane that was lost was flown by 2 nd Lt. Arthur E. Farnham Jr. The man fatally wounded was Staff Sergeant Charles V. Rentschler.

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    Commendation

    To: Commanding Officer, 461 st Bombardment Group.

    The following teletype is quoted for your information. With pride I pass to you and your officers and men the following cable from General Arnold:

    "Fifteenth Air Force operations from 16 through 19 November, 1944 have been noted with appreciative interest. Worthy of commendation is the sustained effort on successive days. Convey to all members of your command participating my heartiest appreciation for a job well done. The ground maintenance crews in particular should be most emphatically informed that their untiring efforts are most deeply appreciated not only by air crews but by all members of higher echelons, especially myself. The AAF is indeed proud of the men on her ground crews who made possible each new air success."

    Target: Blechhammer South Synthetic Oil Refinery, Germany

    On 20 November Lt. Colonel Lawhon, flying more than his share of the missions through bad weather due to the absence of Colonel Hawes and Major Donovan, led the Group and the wing in attacking the South Synthetic Oil Refinery at Blechhammer, Germany. This was the fifth mission to be flown by this Group against Blechhammer target. It proved to be the first time the combat crews had ever seen the target. Weather over the target was CAVU. The smoke screens, which had always completely obscured this target on all previous missions by this Group, were ineffective. It may have been the enemy was slow in getting the screen started, but observations reveal that a strong surface wind was blowing the smoke away from the target. The radio monitor picked up enemy fighters in the area but none were seen.

    Swinging northward off the briefed course to avoid a clouded area and maneuvering the Wing formation in a superior manner in a desperate effort not to permit an opportunity to really hit a Blechhammer plant fail him at the last moment, Lt. Colonel Lawhon ran into a great deal of flak but brought the Group formation straight across the target. Many of the bombs in the first attack unit of the Group fell northwest of the target, but those of the second attack unit really struck home. The bombs fell in the center of the target scoring many direct hits and, near misses on vital installations. The boiler house received hits and near misses as did the sulphur removal plant and the gas generating plant. Other installations receiving hits, the north rejecter house, the coal gas plant, and the cooling towers. The Marshalling Yard on the east edge of the refinery was also hit.

    The mission was highly successful but costly. Twenty-three of the twenty six planes over the target were hit by flak. On the return route both 2 nd Lt. Robert A. Crinkley and 2 nd Lt. Arthur L. Hughes bailed their crews out over Yugoslavia. 2 nd Lt. Charles F. Krahn and four other members of his eleven man crew were lost when he ran out of fuel and was compelled to ditch the plane but a short distance off the Italian coast in the Adriatic.

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    Mission #139

    Target: Troop Concentrations West of Novi Pazar, Yugoslavia

    Poor visibility and flak at unexpected places interfered with a two flight frag formation led by Captain Mixson against German troop concentrations in Yugoslavia on 21 November 1944. Photographs show that the bombs fell across the railroad tracks and the highway three miles southeast of Cacak.

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    Commendation

    To: Commanding Officer, 461st Bombardment Group.

    The following message received from General Spaats forwarded from General Twining is passed on to you for your information:

    "Highly gratified at the excellent progress you are making in bombing under adverse weather conditions by day and by night."

    Mission #140

    Target: West Marshalling Yard, Munich, Germany

    In attacking the West Marshalling Yard at Munich on 22 November, Major Rider, leading the formation, proved himself a real formation leader. On the way over the Alps, en route to the target the Group, flying behind the 451 st , which was being led by Colonel Knapp, ran into a deck of cirrus with bases at 20,000 and tops at 28,000 feet. As they approached the target the cloudiness increased. Far short of the target the pilots were compelled to fly formation on instruments. Over the target the cirrus was ten-tenths, but Major Rider kept the whole formation together and brought it back over the Alps through weather as bad as that over the target. The bombing, of course, was done by instruments with unobserved results. One plane in the formation rammed its nose turret into the tail turret of the plane ahead. No one was hurt but both turrets were destroyed. Leaks in the fuel lines, which were caused by flak, compelled 2 nd Lt. Thomas D. Welton to bail his crew out south of the bomb line in Italy.

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    Mission #141

    Target: Troop Concentrations at Novi, Pazar, Prijepolje, and Visegrad, Yugoslavia

    Mission #141

    Target: West Marshalling Yard, Munich, Germany

    Mission #141

    Target: West Marshalling Yard, Munich, Germany

    For the last mission of the month, which was flown on 25 November, the Group went back again to the west Marshalling Yard at Munich, Germany. This, however, was a night mission, the first one ever to be flown by the Group. The three individual planes on the mission were piloted by Lt. Barnes, Lt. Hess, and Lt. Miller. Two of the planes, feeling that the nine-tenths cloud coverage in the target area warranted them sufficient protection against possible enemy fighters and searchlights, bombed the Marshalling Yard by the pathfinder method. The third plane, flown by Lt. Barnes, developed oxygen leaks which necessitated the bombing of Haiming, Austria, as a target of opportunity.


    Sites for this collection are listed below. Narrow your results at left, or enter a search query below to find a site, specific URL or to search the text of archived webpages.

    Page 1 of 1 (4 Total Results)

    Title: 461st Bombardment Group (H), http://www.461st.org/index.html

    URL: http://www.461st.org/

    Opis: Constituted as 461st Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 May 1943. Activated on 1 July 1943. Moved to the Mediterranean theater, January-February 1944, the air echelon flying B-24s via the South Atlantic and stopping in North Africa before joining the ground echelon in Italy. Began combat with Fifteenth Air Force in April 1944. Engaged chiefly in bombardment of communications, industries, and other strategic objectives in Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Supported Fifteenth Air Force's counter-air operations by bombing enemy airdromes and aircraft centers, receiving a Distinguished Unit Citation for a mission on 13 Apr 1944 when the group battled its way through enemy defenses to attack an aircraft components plant in Budapest, Hungary. Participated in the effort against the enemy's oil supply by flying missions to such oil centers as Brux, Blechhammer, Moosbierbaum, Vienna, and Ploesti. Received second Distinguished Unit Citation for a mission against oil facilities at Ploesti in July 1944 when, despite flak, clouds, smoke, and fighter attacks, the group bombed its objective. Also operated in support of ground forces and flew some interdictory missions. Hit artillery positions in support of the invasion of southern France in August 1944 and flew supply missions to France in September. Aided the Allied offensive in Italy in April 1945 by attacking gun emplacements and troop concentrations. Dropped supplies to prisoner-of-war camps in Austria during May 1945. Returned to the United States in July. Inactivated on 18 Aug 1945. The 461st Bombardment Group Association was established to perpetuate the history of the 461st Bombardment Group (H), Fifteenth Air Force, and the memory of those comrades who gave their lives in the defense of our country. The Association 1) arranges annual reunions and provide social and recreational activities for its members - provide a means for the members of the 461st Bombardment Group (H) of the Fifteenth Air Force to continue to readily and more easily associate, communicate and enjoy each other's friendship. 2) assists family members and others in learning more about the experiences of the members of the 461st Bombardment Group (H) during World War II, both aircrew and ground crew.

    Loading Wayback Capture Info.

    Identifier: FSU_WWII_461st_2018_06_27

    Title: 484th Bombardment Group (H), http://www.484th.org/

    URL: http://www.484th.org/

    Opis: The 484th Bombardment Group (H) was part of the 49th Bombardment Wing, Fifteenth Air Force during World War II. The 484th Bombardment Group Association was established to perpetuate the history of the 484th Bombardment Group (H), Fifteenth Air Force, and the memory of those comrades who gave their lives in the defense of our country. The Association 1) arranges annual reunions and provide social and recreational activities for its members - provide a means for the members of the 484th Bombardment Group (H) of the Fifteenth Air Force to continue to readily and more easily associate, communicate and enjoy each other's friendship. 2) assists family members and others in learning more about the experiences of the members of the 484th Bombardment Group (H) during World War II, both aircrew and ground crew.


    Col. Philip R. Hawes & the 461st Bombardment Group, Toretta, Italy

    Hello all, and welcome to the 461st Bombardment Group, Toretta, Italy, through the letters of my grandfather Col. Philip Robert "Spike" Hawes during 1943 and 1944 when he was deputy CO (under Col. Glantzberg) and then CO of 5,000 men. His primary missions were to pilot planes that bombed oil refineries in Nazi occupied territory. He was also unofficial morale officer.


    Philip R. "Spike" Hawes (courtesy of www.461st.org)

    For the history of the missions, I refer you to Hughes Glantzberg's collection of mission records from his father, Col. Glantzberg:
    http://www.amazon.com/Al-Ataque-Hughes-Glantzberg/dp/0595415725

    I will be adding every letter he wrote to my grandmother Jean Elizabeth Hermes Hawes, and his diary documenting his flight from Florida to Brazil to West Africa to Morocco to Italy as I scan them. A note on dates: I am post-dating every entry 64 years into the future in order to preserve the original order of the diary and letters and give you a sense of when everything was happening (1943-1944 are not options on Blogger).

    If you were a member of the 461st Bombardment Group, or were stationed at Toretta, or are a family member of one of the service men or women there, please write to me! I would love to hear from you.

    I hope you enjoy his observations of a world turned on its head, and his unswerving humor through both tragedy and triumph.

    I never met my grandfather. He died at the age of 44 when his plane from Texas to Alabama ran out of fuel due to a storm. He and his co-pilot bailed out, but they were only 1,000 feet from the ground

    I lost my mother last year to cancer, and this is the greatest legacy I ever could have asked for.

    In 1952-53 he and my grandmother fulfilled a dream of travel when he was named Air Attache to the Soviet Union. He worked with George Kennan and saw several U.S. Ambassadors come and go. My mother and her two brothers were sent to Chalet Flora in Gstaad, Switzerland, where they hiked and skied every day. If anyone has contact information for Grey Ruthven, 2nd Earl of Gowrie (known as Grey Gowrie), I have reason to believe he roomed with my two uncles, and I have many questions for him. Please email me!


    My mother, in Gstaad, Switzerland, 1952

    When I have a chance, I will add my grandparent's letters and extensive photographs from Stalinist Moscow and their travels around the Societ Union and to Odessa at a time when few Americans netured to that part of the world. They were always shadowed by the KGB, which my grandmother took as a big complement. Unimportant people aren't a threat to communism :) My grandfather was the sole U.S. representative at Stalin's funeral, according to the Howitzer (West Point) memorial about his life.


    My granfather Col. Phil Hawes and grandmother Jean Elizabeth Hermes Hawes in Moscow, 1952.

    Col. Philip Robert Hawes
    1912-1956
    LIBRARIAN - GYMNAST - PILOT - WAR HERO - WRITER - HUMORIST - FATHER



Komentari:

  1. Bardarik

    I congratulate, what necessary words ..., the magnificent thought

  2. Teppo

    Puno vam hvala na informacijama, sada neću pogriješiti.

  3. Biaiardo

    Možda ću se složiti s vašom frazom

  4. Jarmann

    What a graceful thought

  5. Nataur

    vosche jako najbolji !!!



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